Early Modern Chronology

A List of "Early Modern" Events:  1453-1716

Compiled by Tom Dale Keever

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To the memory of James Trager, 1925-2012

The Ottoman Turks, led by Memed II, capture Constantinople: The end of the Byzantine Empire, 29 May
Paris students, many of them foreign, riot in reaction to harassment by authorities.

Talbot defeated and slain at Castillon, Gascony, in final battle of "The Hundred Years War," 17 July
King Henry VI suffers mental collapse at royal manor of Clarendon, 1 August
Queen Margaret gives birth to Edward, crown prince, 13 October
Bordeaux, last English possession in Guyenne,  surrenders to the French , 19 October
Somerset arrested and confined to The Tower, 23 November

John Dunstable dies

Rasulid dynasty ends in Yemen
Treaty of Lodi, negotiated by Pope Nicholas V, ends hostilities among Milan, Venice, and Florence
Americus Vespucius born, Florence, March

Cardinal Kemp dies, 22 March
Richard of York named "Protector" during Henry VI’s insanity, 27 March
Earl of Salisbury named Chancellor, 29 March
Bishop Thomas Bourgchier elected Archbishop of Canterbury, 23 April
King Henry pronounced recovered, Christmas

Gutenberg uses moveable type to print indulgences for local bishop
Gutenberg publishes Tükenkalendar, warning of Ottoman invasion threat following fall of Constantinople

Gutenberg, Füst and Schoeffer publish "Guttenberg Bible" in Mainz, Germany
François Villon fatally wounds a priest in a street brawl, 5 June, later banished from Paris
Venice's Ghetto Nuovo island, future Jewish enclave, acquired by Costantino and Bartolomeo da Brolo
Paris Cadamosto explores Senegal River in Africa for Portugal

First Battle of Saint Albans begins "Wars of the Roses," Somerset and Northumberland killed, 22 May
Richard, Duke of York, appointed protector and defender of England, 19 November

Ottoman Turks capture Athens but are defeated in Hungary
Saint John of Capistrano, leader of Hungarian Crusade, dies of plague, 23 October
Venetian explorer Alvise Ca’ da Mosto reaches Sierra Leone, 
     furthest extent of Henry the Navigator’s expeditions in Africa

Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, later King Henry VII, born, 21 January
Richard, Duke of York, resigns as protector and defender, 25 February

François Villon, "Le Petit testament"

Uccello, The Battle of San Romano

Francesco Foscari forced to abdicate as Doge of Venice, dies days later
Belleville Aqueduct repaired in Paris and begins supplying water to city
Christian I of Oldenburg, King of Denmark and Norway, elected King of Sweden

Scottish parliament, under James II, decrees that "Fute-ball and Golfe be utterly cryed downe"

Filippino Lippi, son of Filippo Lippi, born

George of Podebrad, Hussite leader, becomes King of Bohemia
Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini becomes Pope Pius II
Portugese expedition against Alcácr Ceguer (now Ksar es-Shrhir) by Alfonso V and Prince Henry

English nobility "reconciled," 25 March

Battle of Blore Heath, 23 September - "Wars of the Roses" resume between Yorkists and Lancastrians
Battle of Ludford Bridge, 12 October
Parliament convenes at Coventry, 20 November
Konrad Celtis born in Vienna
St. Antoninus (b. 1389), Archbishop of Florence, dies

Prince Henry the Navigator, sponsor of Portugese expeditions to Africa, dies at Sagres, 13 November

Yorkists defeat Henry VI at Northampton, Buckingham and Shrewsbury killed, 10 July
York returns from Ireland, September
York acknowledged as heir to the throne, 31 October
Battle of Wakefield, Richard of York, Rutland and Salisbury killed, 30 December
James II of Scotland killed at Roxburgh, 3 August, succeeded by James III

Art and Architecture:
Winchester Cathedral completed

Botticelli begins his apprenticeship with Fra Filippo Lippi in Florence

"Pfister" Bible, or "Thirty-six Line" Bible,  published in Bamberg

Battle of Mortimer's Cross, 2/3 February
Owen Tudor beheaded at Mortimer's Cross
Second Battle of St. Albans, 17 February
Edward IV assumes the crown, 4 March
Battle of Towton, Yorkists defeat last Lancastrian forces, Northumberland killed, 29 March
Edward IV crowned, 28 June

Charles VII of France dies, succeeded by Louis XI, a.k.a. "The Spider", 22 July

Georg von Peurbach, Austrian mathematician and astronomer, dies, Vienna, 8 April
 Ivan III (the Great) seizes power in Russia, founding dynasty of the House of Rurik

François Villon escapes gallows and disappears from Paris
Ottoman Turks conquer Bosnia
Monte de Pietà at Orvieto, low interest loans made to poor
Saint Catherine of Bologna dies, 9 March

Giovanni Pico de Mirandola born, 24 February

Hamburg: Johann Rust publishes Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen, first monthly magazine

Pope Pius II dies, succeeded by Pope Paul II
Nicholas of Cusa dies, Lodi, Italy, August 11
Cosimo de’ Medici dies
Medicis move their Geneva branch to Lyon
Royal mail service established in France

King Edward IV marries Elizabeth Woodville, 1 May
Earl of Warwick, unaware of royal wedding, negotiates with Louis XI for marriage treaty
Peace treaty between England and Scotland

Medicis contract with Pope Paul II to exploit alum deposits in Tolfa
King Edward IV issues edict against "hustling of stones" and other bowling sports
Content of silver in English coins reduced by 20%

Johann Fust, Guttenberg’s partner, dies
Desiderius Erasmus born, 28 October

Elizabeth of York, daughter of King Edward IV, born, 11 February

Donatella dies

Johann Mentel prints first German Bible in Strasbourg

Duke Philip II of Burgundy dies, succeeded by Charles the Bold, brother-in-law of Edward IV
Pope Paul II adopts scarlet as official color for cardingals' robes
Scottish Parliament decrees "fute-ball and golfe not to be used"

Johannes Guttenberg dies, 3 February

Nanak, founder of Sikhism, born at Talwandi, near Lahore
King Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile
Piero de' Medici dies
Lorenzo de’ Medici confirmed as Piero's successor and takes over control of Medici banking empire
Niccolo Machiavelli born in Florence, 3 May
Vasco de Gama born

Juan del Encina born

Fra Filippo Lippi dies

English garrison at Calais refuses Warwick entry, 16 April
Earl of Warwick and Clarence arrive in France, May
Warwick swears allegiance to Queen Margaret and Henry VI at French court in Angers, 22 July
Anne, daughter of Warwick, betrothed to Prince Edward in Angers cathedral, 25 July
Warwick's army invades England, landing near Exeter, 9 September
Henry VI restored by Warwick, declared King, 3 October
Edward IV, Richard Duke of Gloucester, and Lord Hastings flee to Burgundy
Edward V born to Queen Elizabeth in Sanctuary at Westminster, 2 November

Gil Vicente, Portugese playwright, born
Portugese discover Gold Coast of West Africa
First French printing press established at Sorbonne

The farce Maître Pierre Pathelin performed in Paris

Pope Sixtus IV assumes papacy
The Fuggers of Augsburg begin business dealings with the Hapsburgs
Thomas á Kempis dies, 25 July
São Tomé discovered by Porugese, December 21

Edward IV returns to England with Richard and Hastings to end "the winter of our discontent," 12 March
Sir Thomas Malory dies in Newgate prison, London, 14 March
Edward IV enters London, 11 April
Battle of Barnet, Yorkist army led by Richard of Gloucester, Earl of Warwick defeated and slain, 13 April
Queen Margaret and Prince Edward land at Weymouth, 14 April
Battle of Tewkesbury, 4 May, Prince Edward slain, Margaret captured, later ransomed to France
King Henry VI murdered in The Tower, 21 May

Albrecht Dürer born, 21 May

Danish navigator Dietrich Pining discovers Newfoundland (?)
John Bessarion dies, Ravenna, 18 November
Regiomontanus observes what is later known as Halley's Comet
Portugese discover Príncipe, January 17

Fra Bartolomeo born, 28 March
Memling paints The Last Judgement, alterpiece at Danzig
Leone Battista Alberti dies, Rome, 25 April

Rodrigo Cota, Dialogue between Love and an Old Man

Dante’s Divine Comedy printed at Foligno

Richard, Duke of York, son of King Edward IV, born, August

Nicolaus Copernicus born, 19 February

Isabella I becomes Queen of Castile
Guillaume Dufay dies

Leonardo da Vinci accepted into Florentine painters guild as master
Venice commissions Gentile Bellini to oversee repainting of Great Council Chamber frescos

William Caxton, in Bruges, publishes first book printed in English, Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye.
First Latin translation of Herodotus' Histories

Cesare Borgia born
Francisco Pizarro born
Vasco Núñez de Balboa born, Jerez de los Caballeros, Badajoz, Spain

Willam Caxton establishes first English printing press near Westminster Abbey
Queen Margaret, ransomed by Louis XI for 50,000 crowns, returns to France
Duke of Exeter, Lancastrian royal claimant, drowned, September

Michelangelo Buonerotti born, 6 March
Sebastiano Serlio born in Bologna, 6 September

William Caxton, in Bruges, publishes The Game and the Play of the Chesse, second book in English

Charles the Bold routed by enemies before Granson, flees leaving his artillery, supplies and bathtub.
Regiomontanus, Geman astronomer, dies, Rome, 8 July

Charles the Bold, last Valois Duke of Burgundy, brother-in-law of Edward IV, dies, 5 Jan
Maximilian, son of Emperor Frederick III, marries Mary of Burgundy, heiress of Charles the Bold      – the Hapsburgs acquire the Netherlands

Francesco Granacci, Italian painter, born, 23 July

William Caxton publishes first English book in England: The Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres
       written by Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers, brother of Queen Elizabeth, 18 November
William Caxton publishes Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales

Giuliano de’ Medici, brother of Lorenzo de’ Medici, murdered in Florence Cathedral by Pazzi assassin
Florence placed under papal edict
Pope Sixtus IV authorizes special special royal-religious court to investigate and prosecute heresy in Seville
Castiglione born, 6 December

Thomas More born in Milk Street, Cheapside, 7 February

Sandro Botticelli, La Primavera

Ferdinand II becomes King of Aragon
Union of Aragon and Castile begins the Spanish state
Venetian forces seize Cyprus from Turks
Copenhagen University founded
Destruction of Arras makes Brussels center of European tapestry industry

Ivan III styles himself "Czar of the Russians"
Ludovico Sforza becomes Regent of Milan
Ferdinand and Isabella appoint inquisitors against heresy among converted Jews
Ferdinand Magellan born
Georg Faust born, prototype of the Faust legend
Leonardo da Vinci invents the parachute
Qaitbay, Sultan of Egypt, builds citadel on site of Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria, using some of its remaining stones

Jean Fouquet, French painter, dies
Palma Vecchio, Italian painter, born
Sandro Botticelli summoned to Rome by Pope Sixtus IV
Botticelli, Ghirlandajo, Perugino, Pinturicchio, and Signorelli paint frescoes in Sistine Chapel

Ottavio Scoto publishes missals in Venice with first printed musical notation

Angelo Poliziano, Favola d’Orfeo, Italian pastoral vernacular drama 

Peace of Arras between Louis XI and the Hapsburgs
Christian I of Oldenberg, King of Denmark and Norway, dies,  21 May

Spanish Inquisition begun
Paolo Toscanelli, mapmaker, dies, Florence, May 15
Amsterdam walled

Queen Margaret, widow of Henry VI, dies 25 August
English army, led by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, invades Scotland

Leonardo da Vinci applies to Duke of Milan for patronage
Hugo van der Goes, Dutch painter, dies
Luca della Robbia, Florentine painter, dies

Erhard Radholt publishes Euclid’s Geometry in Venice, sells it for 2½ lira

Fire destroys doge's palace in Venice
Francesco Guicciardini, Florentine historian, born
Martin Luther born, 10 November
King Louis XI of France, "The Spider," dies, his son Charles VIII succeeds
The Russians begin to explore Siberia
King John II of Portugal refuses to finance Columbus’ voyage

King Edward IV dies, Edward V proclaimed king, April
Lord Hastings executed, 15 June
Richard III declares himself King, 25 June
Richard III crowned, 6 July
English College of Arms incorporated to govern rules of heraldry

Raphael born, 29 March?, or 6 April

Caxton's edition of The Golden Legend

Pope Sixtus dies, succeeded by Innocent VIII
Papal bull "Summis desiderantes" against witchcraft and sorcery
Ulrich Zwingli, Swiss Protestant reformer, born, 1 January
Portugese navigator Diego Cam discovers the mouth of the Congo River

King Richard III’s son, Edward, and his wife, Anne, die

Albrecht Dürer: Self-portrait

Jacob Sprenger & Heinrich Kromer, Malleus Maleficarum, textbook for identifying witches

King Richard III defeated and killed at Battle of Bosworth Field, 22 August
King Henry VII crowned, 30 October
Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York
Yeomen of the Guard established 
Thomas Cromwell born in Putney

Rudolf Agricola, Heidelberg humanist scholar, dies

Sandro Botticelli, Venus Landing on the Shore

Leon Battista Alberti, De Re Aedificatoria

Maximilian I elected King of Germany
Portugese discover Angola
Columbus convinces Spanish monarchs to finance his voyage west

Humphrey Stafford denied right of sanctuary because he was guilty of high treason, 13 May
Arthur, Prince of Wales, born, 19 September
Outbreak of "Sweating Sickness" in London

Andrea del Sarto born, 16 July
Carlo Crivelli, The Annunciation with St. Emidius

Antoine de la Sale, Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles
Vitruvius, Architectura, without illustrations

Plautus’ Menaechmi performed in Ferrara in an Italian translation

Bartolomeu Diaz discovers the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa
Spanish conquer Malaga from the Moors

Supporters of Lambert Simnel defeated at Stoke-on-Trent, 16 June
Henry VII's progress through the North solidifies his power, Yorkist resistance collapses

First drug dispensary, Apotheke, in Berlin
Andrea del Verrocchio dies

King James III of Scotland murdered, 11 June, James IV succeeds
"Great Harry," Henry VII’s ship, built at Portsmouth

Thomas Cranmer born, 2 July
Margaret Tudor born, 29 November
Anti-tax rebellion in Yorkshire and NE England
Duke of Northumberland murdered
Arthur proclaimed Prince of Wales
Council of Wales and the Marches created at Ludlow
Parliament distinguishes lay scholars from clerks in holy orders, limits laymen claiming "benefit of clergy"

Lorenzo de’ Medici writes the sacred drama San Giovanni e Paolo

Corpus Christi Play performed at Eger, Bohemia
First ballets at Italian court performances
Leonardo de Vinci observes capillary action of liquids in small bore tubes
First orphanages in Italy and Holland

Knuyt van Sluyterhoven, Scorletta, Terentian comedy in Germany

King Henry VIII born, 28 June
Saint Ignatius Loyola born
Scottish parliament renews its opposition to the "unproffitable sportis" of "Fute-ball and Golfe"
Lorenzo de Medici, "The Magnificent," dies, 8 April
Siege of Boulogne
Fall of Granada ends Moorish influence in Spain
Treaty of Naples secures peace with France
Columbus departs on first voyage to West Indies,  April 17
Torquemada orders Jews to convert or be expelled from Spain
Pope Innocent VIII dies, despite pioneering experiment with blood transfusion, 
Roderigo Borgia, father of Cesare Borgia, chosen as Pope Alexander VI
Pietro Aretino born
Margaret of Navarre born
Leonardo da Vinci draws a flying machine
Piero della Francesca dies
Martin Behaim of Nürmberg constructs first terrestrial globe

Elizabeth, widow of Edward IV, mother of Henry VII's queen, dies
Thomas More enters Canterbury College, Oxford, as collegium puerum

Lorenzo Costa, Madonna (Basilica San Petronio, Bologna)

Martin Behaim, in Germany, publishes first terrestrial globe that shows earth as round, BEFORE Columbus
Boëthius, Opera, treatise on theory of music, published in Venice
First Latin-Spanish dictionary published by Elio Antonio Nebrija

James IV of Scotland declares the end of the Macdonald Lordship of the Isles
Columbus, returning from America, makes landfall at the Azores, 18 February
Papal bull Inter cetera divina divides newly discovered American lands between Spain and Portugal, 4 May
First cases of syphilis reported in Barcelona
Columbus sets out on second voyage, 25 September
Columbus discovers pineapples on Guadeloupe 
Smallpox, imported by Europeans, first breaks out in New World, Santo Domingo
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III dies, succeeded by Maximilian I of Austria
Paracelsus, Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, born, Einsiedeln, Schwyz, 1 May
First successful settlement of São Tomé established by Álvaro Caminha

Hans Sachs born in Nurenburg
Georgius Agricola ( Georg Bauer), pioneer mineralogist, born, Glauchau, Saxony, 24 March
Charles VIII of France invades Italy, enters Florence
Medici family expelled from Florence, their property confiscated

Poyning’s Law limits legislation in Irish Parliament
Thomas More leaves Oxford, enters The New Inn to prepare for law studies

Leonardo da Vinci begins work on The Last Supper in Milan
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola dies
Jocopo da Pontormo, Italian painter, born, 24 May
Rosso Fiorentino, Italian painter, born, 8 March

Mauburnus, Rosetum exercitiorum spiritualium et sacrarum meditationum
Luca Pacioli, treatise on arithmetic and geometry with first description of double-entry bookkeeping

Office of "Master of Revels" established at English court

John II of Portugal dies, succeeded by Manuel I, "The Fortunate"
Savonorola preaches "Renovation Sermon" in Florence Cathedral, 13 January
King Charles VIII of France enters Naples, 22 February
Syphilis epidemic spread from Naples by French soldiers
Ferdinand I, Pope Alexander VI, Emperor Maximilian, Milan and Venice 
     form Holy League of Venice against France
Holy League and France fight Battle of Fornova, Parma;  Louis XII withdraws to France
Jews expelled from Portugal
Peter Apian, astronomer, born, Leisnig, 16 April

Perkin Warbeck accepted at court of James IV of Scotland
Sir William Stanley, Lord Chamberlain, executed for complicity in Warbeck conspiracy
King Henry VII establishes first drydock at Portsmouth, initiating its naval significance
Cicely, Dowager Duchess of York, dies

Elio Antonio de Nebrija, Vocabulario español-latino, contains the Caribe word "Canoe"
Mattea Mario Boiarado, Orlando Innamorato, first Italian romantic epic
Jacopo Sannazzaro, Arcadia, pastoral romance

Josquin des Prés appointed organist and choirmaster at Cambrai Cathedral

Albrecht Dürer opens his own studio at Nurnburg and travels to Italy
Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights

Peter Dorland, Elckerlijk, prototype of English Everyman

Columbus returns from second voyage to America
Romano Pane, monk who accompanied Columbus, first describes tobacco
Menno Simons born in Witmarsum, Friesland
Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri Mahdi Mau'ood (Urdu: سید محمد جونپورى) declares himself Mahdi at Kabah in Mecca

Intercursus Magnus, commercial treaty with the Netherlands
James IV of Scotland invades Northumberland in support of Perkin Warbeck
Jesus College, Cambridge, founded
Thomas More enters Lincoln's Inn to study law, 12 February
Henry VII commissions John and Sebastion Cabot to discover trade route to Asia

Fraanchino Gafori, Practica Music, treatise on composition

Perugino, Madonna with the Saints of Perugia

Juan del Encina, Cancionero, Easter play
Johann Reuchlin, Sergius, Latin comedy
Henry Medwall, Fulgens and Lucres

Vasco da Gama discovers the Passage to India around Africa, 22 November
"The Burning of the Vanities," under Savonarola, in the Piazza de Signori, Florence, 7 February
Bread riot in Piazzo de Grano, Florence, 19 February

Savonarola excommunicated
Spanish currency reform creates 8 reales coin, aka "Spanish dollar" or "Piece of Eight."
Philipp Melanchthon, Protestant activist, born
Jean François Fernel, pioneer French physician, born, Montdidier, Somme

Lord Audley leads anti-tax rebellion in Cornwall, defeated at Blackheath

Cornish tax rebels, including Michael an Gof, drawn and quartered after Battle of Deptford Bridge
Perkin Warbeck captured at Taunton
John Cabot lands in Newfoundland, or perhaps Nova Scotia.  Claims whichever it is for England.
Laymen denied right to claim "benefit of clergy" in cases of "petty treason"

Johannes Reuchlin, Scaenica Progymnasmata, or Henno
Henry Medwall’s Fulgens und Lucres performed at Lambeth Palace

Thomas More, Lac Puerorum (Milk for Children), a Latin grammar, first published work.

Johannes Ockeghem dies,  Tours

King Charles VIII of France dies, succeeded by Louis XII, founding Vallois-Orleans dynasty
Columbus departs on third voyage to America, discovers Orinoco River
Savonarola burned at the stake in Florence,  Eve of Ascension Day
Torquemada dies
Commynes completes his Mémoires (published in 1524)
First German pawnshop opens in Nürmberg

John Cabot departs on second voyage to new world in search of NW Passage. 
     Explores North American coast from Labrador to Hatteras, but never returns
Erasmus begins teaching at Oxford

Michelangelo completes Pietà for St. Peters in Rome
Leonardo da Vinci completes The Last Supper in Milan

Giorgio Valla's Latin translation of Aristotle's Poetics, first not based on Averroë’s from the Arabic
Demotrico Terracina obtains twenty year monopoly to publish oriental texts in Venice
Aldus Manutius offers first printed Greek edition of Aristotle for 11 ducats in Venice
Aldine Press publishes comedies of Aristophanes

King Louis XII of France invades Italy, occupies Milan, 6 October
War breaks out between Venice and Ottomans, Venetian fleet defeated at Sapienza
Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda leave Spain to explore South America
Marsilio Ficino dies, Florence, 1 October
Moors revolt in Granada because of forced mass conversions by church
Estudio de Escuelas Generales de Alcalá, Spain, becomes Universitas Complutensis
Niccolò Tartaglia, Italian mathematician, born, Brescia

Oxford University institutes degrees in music
Perkin Warbeck and Earl of Warwick executed

Giorgione, Portrait of a Young Man

Celestina, Fernando de Rojas

Emperor Charles V (King Charles I of Spain) born, 24 February
King Louis XII of France defeats Duke Ludovica Sforza at Novara, 8 April
Treaty of Granada: Louis XII partitions Naples with Ferdinand of Aragon
Pedro Alvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal
De Ojeda and Vespucci return to Spain with news of discovery of The Amazon River
Bartolomeo Diaz drowns near Cape of Good Hope
Peter Henlein invents mainspring-driven watch, "The Nürnberg Egg"
Alfonso of Naples, husband of Lucrezia Borgia, murdered
Aldus Manutius founds academy in Venice for study of Greek classics and invents italics
University of Valencia founded
Hailstorm brings down ceilings of Papal Palace, Rome, 19 July
Ottavio de’ Petrucci prints music from movable type
First recorded Caesarean operation by Swiss pig gelder Jakob Nufer
Basque whaling fishery begun at Red Bay, Labrador

First "black lead" pencils used in England
First annual horse races at Chester

Michelangelo, Madonna and Child, in Bruges
Hieronymous Bosch, Ship of Fools
Sandro Botticelli, Mystic Nativity
Benvenuto Cellini born in Florence, 1 November

Fernando de Rojas, La Céléstina
Mariken van Nieumeghen, Dutch miracle play

Erasmus, Adagia, collection of proverbs
Till Eulenspiegel published in Lübeck

Esma'il I defeats Ak Koyunlu at Tabriz, ending Mongol control of Persia
Papal bull orders burning of books against Church authority
Leonardo Loredan elected Doge of Venice

Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII, marries James IV of Scotland
Katherine of Aragon marries Arthur, Prince of Wales, 14 November 

Gawin Douglas, The Palice of Honour
Erasmus, Enchiridion militis christiani
Petrucci, Harmonice musices odhecaton, first collection of music published using moveable type

Albrecht Dürer, Life of the Virgin
Filippino Lippi, St. Catherine
Michelangelo, David

Conradus Celtis, Ludus Dianne, allegorical play
Conradus Celtis finds manuscripts of Terentian plays by Hroswitha, written circa 1000

Peasants’ revolt in Germany
Piero Soderini heads reformed Florentine government as Gonfaloniere de Giustizia
Columbus departs on fourth, and final, voyage to America.
Vasco de Gama founds Portugese colony at Cochin, India
Amerigo Vespucci concludes that South America is NOT India
Arthur, Prince of Wales, dies, 2 April
Peter Schoeffer, Guttenberg’s partner, dies
University of Wittenberg founded

Giovanni Bellini, Baptism of Christ
Botticelli, The Last Communion of St. Jerome
Lucas Cranach, Crucifixion
Gerard David, St. John the Baptist

Josquin de Prés, First book of Masses  published

One of Gil Vicente’s first plays performed for Portugese court

First printed edition of Herodotus' Histories in Greek

Casa Contratacción (Colonial Office) founded in Madrid to deal with American affairs
Spain conquers Naples
Pope Alexander VI dies, 8 August
Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini becomes Pope Pius III
Pope Pius III dies, 18 October, succeeded by Giuliano della Rovere as Julius II
Nostradamus born, 14 December

Elizabeth of York, Henry VII’s queen, dies, 11 February
Katherine of Aragon and Prince Henry betrothed, 25 June
William Warham becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
John More, Thomas More's father, becomes serjeant-at-law
Thomas Wyatt born

First English translation of Thomas à Kempis’ Imitation of Christ

Art and Architecture:
Leonardo da Vinci returns to Florence and, probably, paints the Mona Lisa

Francesco Parmigiano born, 11 January
Agnolo Bronzino, Italian painter, born, 17 November
Canterbury Cathedral begun

Columbus, marooned in Jamaica, uses solar eclipse to intimidate natives, 28 February
Treaty of Blois, Emperor Maximilian recognizes French rule in Milan
Treaty of Lyons cedes Naples to Spain
Isabella of Castille dies
University of Santiago de Compostela founded
Guru Angad, second head of Sikhism, born

Henry VII places English guilds and trade companies under supervision of the Crown
Nicholas Udall born

Letters, Amerigo Vespucci

Filippino Lippi dies
Francesco Primaticcio, Italian painter, born, 30 April
Lucas Cranach, Rest on the Flight to Egypt
Dürer, Nativity
Giorgione, Madonna
Raphael, Marriage of the Virgin
Michelangelo, David

Dom Hadton writes the Cornish Ordinalia and the play of St Meriasek

Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri Mahdi Mau'ood (Urdu: سید محمد جونپورى) dies,
Second Treaty of Blois: Louis XII renounces claim to Naples, leaving Spa 23 April
in in control

Henry, Prince of Wales, denounces marriage contract with Katherine of Aragon
Maximilian I begins reformation of Holy Roman Empire as universal Hapsberg monarchy
Christ’s College founded at Cambridge by Margaret, Countess of Richmond
John Knox born
Ivan the Great, Grand Duke of Moscow, dies
Martin Luther enters Augustinian monastery at Erfurt
Thomas Tallis born
Portugese found factories on east coast of Africa

Raphael, Madonna del Granduca
Michelangelo Buonarroti commissioned to build tomb of Pope Julius II

Jakob Wimpfeling, Epitome rerum Germanicarum, history based on original sources

Safavids found dynasty in Iran
Prince Henry betrothed to Margaret of Austria
Archduke Philip of Austria agrees to extradite Edmund, Earl of Suffolk, Yorkist pretender
St. Francis Xavier born, 7 April
Christopher Columbus dies, Vallodolid, Spain, 20 May
Jakob Fuggar imports spices from E. Indies to Europe by sea
Pope Julius II overcomes Bentivoglio family to gain control of Bologna
Ancient Roman marble sculpture of Laocoön excavated in Rome, placed in papal collection

Reuchlin, Rudimenta linguae Hebraicae, grammar and dictionary

1507 Portugese discover Mauritius and the Dodo bird
Martin Waldseemüller names western continent "America" in his edition of Ptolemy
First smallpox outbreak in new world, on Hispanola, decimates natives
Gentile Bellini dies
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, Italian architect, born, 1 October
Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, dies

Polydore Virgil appointed court historiographer by Henry VII
Outbreak of "Sweating Sickness" in London

Dürer, Adam and Eve

Maximilian I assumes title of Emperor
Pope Julius II confirms imperial title of German King 
Louis XII and Maximilian I form League of Cambrai to attack Venice,  December
Portugese explorer Diogo Lopes de Segueira reaches Sumatra
Juan Ponce de León conquers Puerto Rico for Spain and enslaves inhabitants
Andrea Palladio born, 30 November

Michelangelo begins work on the ceiling of The Sistine Chapel

Lodovico Ariosto, La Cassaria, performed at Ferrara, pioneer vernacular comedy

Aristotle, The Poetics, in Greek, Aldine Press, first time in Renaissance Europe 
First book published in Scotland, The Maying or Disport of Chaucer

Maximilian begins official persecution of Jews in Empire, orders their books destroyed
Jews from Mestre seek refuge in Venice, establishing first Jewish community there 
Pisa surrenders to Florence
French defeat Venice at Agnadello, 14 May
African slave trade to America proposed by Bartolomé de Las Casas, Bishop of Chiapas, to spare natives
Guru Amar Das, third head of Sikhism, born

Henry VII dies, Henry VIII succeeds, 22 April
Henry VIII marries Katherine of Aragon, 11 June
Katherine crowned Queen, 24 June
St. John’s College, Cambridge, founded
Erasmus lectures at Cambridge, dedicates Praise of Folly to Thomas More

Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
Sebastian Brant’s Ship of Fools, translated by Alexander Barclay, published in England
John Fisher, The Seven Penitential Psalms published
Anonymous, Fortunatus, German prose narrative
Stephen Hawes, The Pastime of Pleasure

Ariosto, Gli suppositi

Andrea del Sarto, Miracles of St. Philip

Ismail, Shah of Persia, forces Sunni Uzbeks out of Khurasan, establishes Shii rule
Henry VIII has Sir Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley beheaded for unfair taxation
Archbishop Warham calls provincial council to consider lay hostility to church
Portugese acquire Goa in India
Louis Bourgeois, French musician, born
Leonardo da Vinci designs horizontal water wheel
John Colet founds St. Paul’s School, London

Sandro Botticelli dies, 10 May
Giorgione dies
Francesco Granacci, Scenes from the Life of Saint John the Baptist
Raphael, Triumph of Galatea
Titian, The Gypsy Madonna

Macropedius, Asotus, Dutch prodigal son play

Albertini, Memoriale di molte statue e pitture . . di Firenze, Florence's first "guide book"
First illustrated edition of Vitruvius' Architectura
Erasmus, Institutio Christiani principis

Sa'dib dynasty established in Morocco
Giorgio Vasari born, 30 July
Henry VIII joins the Holy League against France, October
Erasmus made professor of Greek at Cambridge
Diego de Velasquez de Cuellar occupies Cuba
Michael Servetus executed as heretic at Geneva

Gil Vicente, Auto de los cuatro tiempos

Battle of Ravenna, 11 April, French defeated by Holy League
Anglo-Spanish force invades Aquitaine, but is forced back
Ferdinand II overruns Navarra
Amerigo Vespucci dies, Seville, 22 February
Medicis, with papal support, regain power in Florence
Brasenose College founded at Oxford
Robert Fabyan, pioneer English historian, dies
Fifth Lateran Council pronounces "Immortality of the Soul" a dogma of the Church
Shi’ism made state religion of Persia by Ismail, head of the Safavid Empire

Andrea del Sarto, The Annunciation
Michelangelo finishes work on Sistine chapel
Raphael, Julius II, portrait

Josquin de Près,Second Book of Masses

Balboa reaches Pacific Ocean on west coast of Panama, 25 or 26 September
Ponce de Leon lands in Florida, 27 March
Portugese traders reach south China
Pope Julius II dies, 21 February
Giovanni de’ Medici, son of Lorenzo, elected Pope Leo X
French attack on Milan defeated at Novara, 6 June
"Battle of the Spurs," English defeat French, occupy Tournai, 16 August
James IV of Scotland invades England with 30,000 man army and artillery, 22 August
James IV of Scotland, et al, killed at Battle of Flodden, 9 September, his son James V succeeds
Leonardo da Vinci leaves Florence for Amboise, France
Machiavelli writes The Prince (published in 1532)
Bibiena’s Calandria

Erasmus, Julius Exclusus
William Thynne, ed., The Works of Chaucer, first "complete" edition
First printed book in Polish

Ottoman Sultan Selim I defeats Safavid at Chaldiran, Azerbaijan, reestablishes control of Anatolia
Wolfgang Lazius born, 31 October
Richard Hunne, accused Lollard, found murdered in his cell at St. Paul's, 3 December
Trinity House, advocates for navigation around the British Isles. formed in Deptford

Louis XII dies, 1 January, succeeded by his brother Francis I
Pope Leo X makes triumphal entry into Florence
French defeat Swiss at Marignano, 13/14 September, re-occupy Milan
Duke of Guelders invades Friesland
Saint Theresa of Avila born, Avila, Spain, 28 March
Johannes Schöner constructs first globe to include newly discovered lands and calls them "America"

English Parliament, reacting to Hunne case, debates clerical privileges, February
Anne of Cleves born, 22 September
Thomas Wolsey appointed Chancellor, 24 December

Desiderius Erasmus commissions portrait from Quentin Metsys


Ottoman Turks take control of Algiers
Concordat of Bologna, Pope gives French King more control over French Church, August

Treaty of Noyon: Charles I of Spain recognizes French rule of Milan, August
Venice rejects settling Jews on island of Giudecca, relegates them instead to Ghetto Nuovo, March 29
William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopts the Reinheitsgebot (purity law): the only allowed ingredients of beer are water, hops and barley-malt

Gaspard de Coligny born, 16 February

Mary I of England born, 18 February

Thomas More, Utopia (in Latin)
Robert Fabyan, Concordance of Histories, or New Chronicles of England and France

Ottomans conquer Egypt and Syria from the Mamluks
Imperial Reichstag meets at Mainz, demands action against Franz von Sickingen, July
Luther nails 95 Theses to door of Wittenberg Cathedral, 31 October
Vasco Núñez de Balboa dies, Panama

Thomas More deals with "Evil May Day" riots against "strangers" in London, 1-3 May
Bishop Fox founds Corpus Christi College at Oxford

Gil Vicente, Auto da barca do purgatorio

Complutensian Polyglot Bible published in Alcala by Cardinal Ximenes

Franz von Sickingen attacks city of Metz
Tintoretto born, 16 September

English College of Physicians founded by Doctor Buts, Royal Physician
Treaty of London, settlement of war with France
Outbreak of "Sweating Sickness" in London

Emperor Maximilian dies at Wels, 12 January
Charles I of Spain elected King of the Romans, 28 June, hence Emperor designate as Charles V
Ferdinand Magellan discovers eponymous straits at southern tip of South America
Alonso de Pineda discovers the mouth of the Mississippi River
Cardinal Giulio de' Medici created Archbishop of Florence, effectively ruler of the city
Cosimo de' Medici born
Lucrezia Borgia dies, 24 June

Thomas Gresham, citizen of London, born

Leonardo de Vinci dies at Francis I’s Cloux Palace near Amboise, 2 May

A play by Plautus performed at English court


Suleiman "the Magnificent" becomes Ottoman emperor
Emperor Charles V makes his first visit to England
"Field of the Cloth of Gold," 6 June. Henry VIII meets with Francis I
Reconquest of Sweden by Christian II of Denmark, Stockholm Bloodbath 

Saint Hunna, Patroness of Laundresses, canonized
William Cecil, later Lord Burghley, born, 13 September

Niccolò Machiavelli, La Mandragola
John Skelton, Magnyfycence

Ottomans under Suleiman capture Belgrade
Leonardo Loredan, Doge of Venice, dies
Martin Luther excommunicated, 3 January
Francis I of France declares war on The Holy Roman Empire, 22 April
Henry VIII launches "The Great Enterprise" with Charles V against France
Charles V, aided by Pope Leo X and Henry VIII, recaptures Milan, 19 November
Charles V introduces papal Inquisition into Netherlands
Swedes revolt against Danish rule

Ferdinand Magellan killed in The Philippines, 26 April
Pope Leo X dies, December
Manuel I of Portugal dies, succeeded by John III
Cortez captures Tenochtitlan, 13 August
Smallpox epidemic in Mexico devastates native population

Edward Stafford, Third Duke of Buckingham, executed by Henry VIII
Henry VIII publishes Assertio Septum Sacramentorum, named "Defendor of the Faith" by Pope Leo X
Nicholas Storch born, 16 March
William Roper marries Thomas More's daughter Margaret

Josquin de Prés dies

Sen no Rikyū, master of Japanese tea ceremony, born, Sakai, Osaka prefecture
Ottomans conquer Rhodes

Charles V defeats the French at Bicocca, 24 June
Adrian of Utrecht, Dutch ecclesiastic, elected Pope Adrian VI, last non-Italian pope until John-Paul II
Joachim du Bellay born
São Tomé taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown

Luther's translation of The New Testament, called "September Bible," published anonymously in Wittenberg
Luo Guanzhong, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, first of the four great Chinese classics

Duke of Bourbon allies with Empire, invades Provence as far as Marseilles
Pope Adrian VI dies
Cardinal Giulio de’ Medici elected Pope Clement VII
Andrea Gritti elected Doge of Venice
Kalmar Union of Scandinavia disestablished,
Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden, 6 June 

Zurich adopts Protestantism under Ulrich Zwingli
Pierre de Ronsard born, 11 September
Gabriele Falloppio, aka "Falloppius," pioneer anatomist, born, Modena

Cardinal Wolsey introduces the parliamentary subsidy
Thomas More, Speaker of Commons, petitions successfully for freedom of debate.

German cartographer Schöner's map incorporating Magellan's discoveries
Christopher St. German, Dialogus de fundamentis legum et de conscientia

Tahmasp I succeeds Ismail I as Shah of Iran
French recapture Milan, 26 October
Giovanni di Verrazano explores N. American coast from Carolinas to Nova Scotia, discovers New York Bay
Charles V proposes building a canal across the Isthmus of Panama
Vasco de Gama dies, 24 December
German peasants revolt

Parliament extends authority of London guilds to Westminster and other suburbs within two miles of city.

Juan de Mal Lara, Spanish playwright, born

Commynes, Mémoir
Martin Luther, Von Kaufshandlung und Wucher, denounces trading companies as "monopolia"

English defeat French at Pavia, capturing King Francis I, 24 February
Cardinal Wolsey fails to levy "Amicable Grant" to fund invasion of France
Treaty of the More, settlement with France
Tyndale’s English New Testament published in Cologne
Wolsey obtains license to found "Cardinal College," later Christ Church, at Oxford
Anabaptist Thomas Münzer executed, 27 May
John Stow born, Threadneedle Street, parish of St. Michael, Cornhill, London

First "High School" established in Nuremberg, Germany

Suleiman and the Ottomans invade Hungary, install anti-Habsburg Janos Zapolya as king
Mughal dynasty founded in India with victory of Babur at Panipat

Francis I of France, captive, signs Treaty of Madrid making concessions to Emperor Charles V, January
Francis I released, April, renounces Treaty of Madrid
League of Cognac against Charles V:   Francis I, Pope Clement VII, Venice, and Sforza form alliance
Saint Benedict the Black, patron of African Americans, born in Sicily
First New World slave revolt, 22 April
Silver content of English coins reduced by 8%
Juan Sebastián del Cano dies in South Pacific, 4 August

Imperial troops of Charles V, under Duke of Bourbon, sack Rome, May
The Medici expelled from Florence, republic restored
Ferdinand of Austria crowned King of Bohemia

Henry VIII begins negotiations with Rome for divorce or annullment from Katherine of Aragon
Henry VIII considers making his illegitimate son, the Duke of Richmond, King of Ireland

Pietro Aretino, Il Marescalco 

John Rostell, Calisto and Meliboea and The Dialogue of Gentleness and Nobility
Francisco de Osuna, The Third Spiritual Alphabet, translated "by a Benedictine of Stanbrook"

French garrison in Naples surrenders after death of Odet de Lautrec, 16 August
English Privy Council tries to induce cloth manufacturers to retain employees in face of fall in foreign sales

Albrecht Dürer dies, 6 April

Suleiman's Ottoman army, 330,000 strong, invades Hungary and Austria, takes Budapst, beseiges Vienna
French army in Milan defeated at Landriano, 21 June
Charles V and Pope make peace, beseige Florence in support of the Medici
Treaty of Cambrai, settles war between Henry VIII, Charles V and Francis I, August
Food riots erupt in Lyons
Charles V appoints commission to study building a canal to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at Panama

Wolsey dismissed from all civil offices
Thomas More becomes Chancellor of England, 25 October
Royal agents loot Wolsey’s grammar school at Ipswich, 22 November
"Reformation Parliament" seated, 3 November, holds seven sessions until 1537
John Skelton dies
Outbreak of "Sweating Sickness" in London

Taddeo Zuccari, Italian painter, born, 1 September

Plays Performed:
John Heywood, The Four P’s
"Gnaphaeus," a.k.a. Willem de Volder, Acolastus, Dutch prodigal son play

Simon Fish, A Supplication for the Beggars, anticlerical tract
Thomas Lupset, An Exhortation to Young Men

Ivan the Terrible born, 25 August
Charles V outlaws beggary and directs municipalities to maintain their poor
Protestant German states form League of Schmalkalden to defend against Charles V
Florence surrenders to Papal and Imperial forces
Charles V forces Clement VII to crown him in Basilica of St. Petronius, Bologna
La Lotto de Firenze, first municipal lottery, held in Florence

Cardinal Wolsey dies, 29 November

Erasmus, Greek edition of Aristotle, first since 1498 Aldine edition
Girolamo Fracastoro, Syphilis, a pastoral poem about the suddenly ubiquitous venereal disease.  The title character's name became the disease's

Ulrich Zwingli dies in Battle of  Kappel, 11 October
"Virgin of Guadalupe" appears to indigenous native boy in Mexico, 9 December
Lisbon earthquake kills 30,000, 26 January
Sicke Freerks Snijder, Anabaptist martyr, beheaded at Leeuwarden

English Royal "Proclamation Enforcing Statutes against Beggars and Vagabonds"
   local officials required to license deserving local poor to beg and to arrest all others
Archbishop Warham excommunicates Hugh Latimer, March
Simon Fish dies of plague

Sir Thomas Elyot, The Book Named the Governor

Cortez conquers Mexico
François Rabelais appointed physician to the Grand Hôtel-Dieu de Notre Dame de Pitié du Pont-du-Rhône, Lyon, 1 November
Amsterdam sanitary provisions inspectors require drain pipes and sewers

Audley presents Supplication of the Commons against the Ordinaries to Henry VIII, 18 March
Henry VIII forbids Convocation independent legislative power, 10 May
Submission of the Clergy passed by Parliament in first recorded "division of the House of Commons" -
     recognizes Henry VIII’s superiority in matters ecclesiastical, 15 May
Sir Thomas More resigns as Chancellor, citing ill-health, 16 May
Archbishop Warham dies, removing obstacle to Henry’s divorce
Thomas Cromwell becomes chief minister
Thomas Norton born, London
Robert Dudley, later Earl of Leicester, born, 24 June
Mary, Queen of Scots, born in Edinburgh, 7 December
War of the "Debatable Lands" begins with Scotland
King Henry orders swamps around St. James Hospital drained to produce St. James Park

Christopher St. German, Division between the Sprirituality and Temporality
François Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel
Nicolo Machiavelli, The Prince

John Calvin experiences spiritual revelation; embraces his misson to reform Church
Anabaptists under John of Leyden gain control of Münster
Mathematician Gemma Frisius devises trigonometric method of surveying
Catherine de' Medici introduces bain marie (double boiler) to French court
Michel de Montaigne born, 28 February
Ludovico Ariosto dies, 6 June

Anne Boleyn discovered to be pregnant, mid-January
Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn, 25 January
Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, confirmed by Pope, February
Act of Restraint of Appeals prevents Katherine’s appeal to Rome, March
Convocation voids Henry’s marriage to Katherine, 5 April
John Fisher arrested after resisting Convocation’s decision, 6 April
Anne publicly declared queen, 13 April
Cranmer’s court divorces Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon, 23 May
Cranmer declares Henry and Anne married, 28 May
Anne Boleyn crowned, 1 June
Parliament extinguishes papal authority in England, 8 June
Henry VIII threatened with excommunication, with Sept. ultimatum, by Pope, 11 July
Elizabeth born, 7 September, baptised by Archbishop Cranmer at Greenwich, 10 September
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, natural son of Henry VIII, marries Mary Howard, 25 November

Christopher St. German, Dialogue betwixt Salam and Bizance
Sir Thomas Elyot, Of the Knowledge Which Maketh a Wise Man

Nicholas Udall, Ralph Roister Doister

Ottomans establish control over Iraq
Pope Clement VII dies, September, succeeded by Alessandro Farnese as Paul III
Jesuit order founded by Ignatius Loyala
Martin Luther completes German translation of the Bible
Münster city hall seized by Anabaptist rebels, February
“Aumône-Générale” established in Lyons - pioneer municipal poor relief body
Mansa Mahmud III, emperor of Mali, receives Portuguese envoy Peros Fernandes

Eliza Barton, "Maid of Kent," executed, 20 April
"Act of Restraint of Annates" withdraws annates from Rome
"Dispensations Act" stops all payments to Rome
"First Succession Act" disowns Princess Mary
"Treason Act" criminalizes any desire to harm royal family or accuse King Henry VIII of heresy
War with Scotland ends
"Act of Supremacy" officially ends Papal jurisdiction in England
Trials of Earl of Kildare and of Lord Dacre

Michelangelo begins work on The Last Judgement in The Sistine Chapel

Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, dies without heirs, 1 November
Münster Rebellion ended by the besiegers, June 24
Menno Simons' brother Pieter killed near Bolsward with other Anabaptists
Portuguese begin slave trade from West Africa to Brazil

William Tyndale arrested in Antwerp by agents of the Council at Brussels, May
Twenty-five Dutch Anabaptists tried at St. Paul's, fourteen burned, May-June
Bishop John Fisher executed, 22 June
Sir Thomas More beheaded, 6 July
Pope Paul renews threat of excommunication in reaction to English executions, 30 August
"Act for First Fruits and Tenths" transfers Church income and benefices to Crown
Valor Ecclesiasticus, survey of the wealth of all religious houses, made
Scottish Parliament passes act confining beggars to their parish of origin
James Nicholson granted  permission to print Coverdale Bible in London

Miles Coverdale’s English translation of the Bible, in Zurich, 4 October
William Marshall's English translation of Marsiglio's Defensor Pacis
Stephen Gardiner, De Vera Obedientia, urges obedience to earthly Princes

Kaabu province secedes from Mali Empire, beginning decline of its hegemony in W. Africa
Francis I, allied with Turks and German Protestants, renews war with H.R. Empire, invades Savoy

Turin falls to French, 3 April
The Danish Rigsråd annexes Norway 

Desiderius Erasmus dies in Basel, 12 July
Charles V invades Provence from Piedmont but fails to take Marseilles, July
Francois Rabelais, absolved of apostasy by Pope Paul III, is allowed to resume medical practice
John of Leiden, Bernhard Knipperdolling tortured and executed in the marketplace of Münster, January
Menno Simons rejects the Catholic Church and the priesthood, 12 January
Inca rebels besiege Lima, Peru. Pisarro and his Native allies defeat them. 1st New World firearm fatality.
Italian merchant Francesco Lappi uses "@" symbol in record of wine prices, oldest extant recorded use

Katherine of Aragon dies, 7 January
Anne Boleyn has stillborn son, 29 January
Thomas Boleyn, the queen’s brother, executed, 17 May
Anne Boleyn executed, 19 May
Henry VIII betrothed to Jane Seymour, 20 May; marries 30 May
Mary and Elizabeth declared illegitimate by Parliament, 1 July
"New Treason Act" against anyone refusing oath of Royal Supremacy
Cromwell requires English and Latin Bibles in every Church
Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond and potential royal heir, dies, 22 July
William Tyndale strangled and burnt at the stake, Brussels, 6 October
Rebellion in Lincolnshire, 1-12 October
Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset, born, Buckhurst, Sussex
Clergy enjoined to instruct youth in Lord’s Prayer
"Ten Articles Act," adopted by Convocation, brings strong Lutheran influences to English religious practice
Dissolution of the smaller monasteries
Local parishes required to care for the destitute with locally collected funds
Parliament passes "Law of Uses" reforming taxes on land
"Pilgrimage of Grace" against royal religious practices, 9 October - 5 December
"Franchises Act" revokes grants of jurisdiction to religious orders
Bills to achieve union with Wales introduced in Parliament
Royal proclamation restricts number of Saints' days
Henry VIII issues The First Royal Injunctions
Irish Parliament establishes Church of Ireland with Henry VIII as Spiritual Head

Sixtus Birk, Judith
John Bale’s King Johan performed

John Calvin, Christianae Religionis Institutio, dedicated to Francis I
Alessandro Pazzi's Latin/Greek edition of Aristotle's The Poetics; became standard edition
Pietro Aretino, Dialogues of Courtesans

Alessandro de' Medici assasinated in Florence, 7 January
Cossimo de' Medici confirmed  as Duke of Florence by Charles V
Venetian Senate sequesters property of “Turks, Jews and other Turkish subjects.”

Northern revolt revived by Sir Francis Bigod, January
John Rogers' "Mathew Bible" approved for sale in England
Queen Magdelan of Scotland dies, 5 July
Prince Edward born, 12 October
Queen Jane dies of complications from childbirth, 24 October

Giovanni Battista Guarini born

Thomas Cranmer, The Bishop's Book, The Institution of a Christian Man, September
Sebastiano Serlio, Regole Gererali de Architettura, "Book IV" of Arcitettura

Pope Paul III negotiates ten-year Truce of Nice between Charles V and Francis I, June
Francis I and Charles V meet at Aigues-Mortes to confirm Truce of Nice, July
John Calvin preaches in Strassburg, marries Idelette de Bure
1st American university, Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo founded, 28 October

Henry VIII issues Second Royal Injunctions
Cromwell mandates registration of all baptisms, marriages, and burials in all parishes
Ability to read a primer is required for holy communion
Cromwell authorizes Great Bible, translated by Coverdale, printed by Richard Grafton
Reginald Pole sent by Rome to rally Catholic support against Henry VIII, 27 December
Discovery of Exeter Conspiracy
John Lambert executed for heresy

Titian, Venus of Urbino

John Bale, King Johann, performed for Archbishop Cranmer's household, Christmas
John Bale, The Temptation of Our Lord
Macropedius, Hecastus, Dutch Everyman play
Sixtus Birk, Susanna
Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmeyer), Pammachius, performed in Thuringia

Andrea Divus’ translation of The Odyssey (quoted in Ezra Pound's, Canto 1)

Guru Nanak dies at Kartarpur in Jullundur, succeeded as head of Sikhs by Guru Angad
Francisco de Ulloa explores the coast of California
Hernando de Soto lands in Florida
Cosimo, Duke of Florence, marries Eleonora di Toledo, sealing Spanish alliance
Francis I & Charles V sign treaty threatening combined action against Henry VIII, 12 Jan.

Customs duties of foreign merchants in England reduced to level of domestic, 26 Feb
New Parliament meets, 28 April
Treason Act against religious emigrés
Henry reviews troops prepared to resist attack in London, 8 May
Proclamation for Uniformity in Religion
Act of Six Articles,- backlash against extreme Protestantism in Church, 2 June
Hilsey Primer promulgated
Reginald Pole, his mission a failure, recalled to Rome, August
Geoffrey and Henry Pole, Courtenay, and Sir Edward Neville beheaded, 9 December
Anne of Cleves lands at Deal, 27 December
Dissolution of the Greater Monasteries
Catherine Howard becomes maid of honour to Anne of Cleves

First edition of the Great Bible, officially authorized English translation, April
Sir Thomas Elyot’s The Castl of Health, popularized "humours" theory

Hungarian King Janos Zapolya's death touches off fresh war between Habsburgs and Ottomans
Calvin's followers gain ascendency in Geneva
Hernando Alarcon discovers Colorado River
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado explores north of the Rio Grande
Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas reaches The Grand Canyon

Cromwell makes final address to Parliament, 12 April
Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves, 6 January; marriage dissolved, 9 July
Cromwell arrested at Council, 10 June, executed 28 July
Henry VIII marries Catherine Howard, 28 July
Barnes, Jerome, and Garret burned at the stake as "Anabaptists" in Smithfield, 30 July
Edward Powell, Richard Fetherstone & Thomas Abel executed as Papists, 30 July
War with France
United companies of Barbers and Surgeons incorporated in London
Privy Council reformed to combine deliberative and executive functions
Henry sends questionaire to Bishops on the sacraments, May
Henry VIII establishes Regius professorships at Cambridge
Parliament passes "Law of Wills," repealed and superseded by the Wills Act of 1837

Sebastiano Serlio publishes Libro Terzo of his Architettura in Venice

Godly Queen Hester
Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmeyer), Mercator

Hernando de Soto crosses the Mississippi River
Francesco de' Medici born
Francisco Pizarro stabbed to death by fellow conquistador in Lima, Peru, 26 June
Paracelsus, Theophrastus von Hohenheim, dies, Salzburg, 24 September
Saint John Leonardi born in Tuscany
Venice's Ghetto Vecchio becomes, like Ghetto Nuovo, a jewish quarter, Romanian Jews consigned to it

Henry VIII proclaims a new Bible must be in every church, 6 May
Royal progress to York, 30 June - 29 September
Prince Edward seriously ill from fever
Lady Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, beheaded within Tower, 27 May
Royal proclamation against "superstitious & childish observations" of Saints’ Days, July
Margaret Tudor, Henry’s sister and widow of James IV, dies, 18 October
Cranmer presents Henry evidence of Queen Catherine’s misconduct, November
Ireland declared a Kingdom annexed to the Crown of England

Second edition of The Great Bible

Michelangelo completes The Last Judgement in the Sistine Chapel
Domenikos Theotocopoulos, "El Greco," born in Crete
Andreas Palladio travels to Rome for the first time

Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmeyer), Incendia

Francis I resumes war with Empire, attacks Luxemburg, Brabant, Roussillon and Navarra
Franco-Turkish fleet sacks Nice, 6 September
Roman Inquisition reorganized 
St. John of the Cross born, 24 June
St. Robert Bellarmine born in Tuscany

Catherine Howard executed, 13 February
Henry VIII limits prices for bows and arrows, 31 August
Sir Thomas Wyatt, poet, father of 1553 conspirator, dies, 11 October
Battle of Solway Moss: Scots, under Oliver Sinclair, defeated by English, 23 November
Mary, Queen of Scots, daughter of James V, born, 8 December
James V of Scotland dies, 14 December
Policy of "Surrender and Regrant" brings Gaelic lords in Ireland under feudal rule
Canterbury Convocation, Gardiner questions English Bible

George Babcotte, pioneer funerary violinist, born in Canterbury, baptised 16 February


The Ottomans subjugate Hungary
Nicholas Copernicus dies, 24 May, shortly after publishing his heliocentric theory
Luis Moscosos and survivors of DeSoto expedition, travelling down the Mississippi, reach Gulf of Mexico

James Hamilton, Earl of Arran, appointed Regent of Scotland, 3 January
Secret Anglo-Imperial treaty prepares for war with France, 11 February
Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr, 12 July
Scottish ambassador agrees to peace treaty at Greenwich, 1 July
English ultimatum to France, 15 June
English under Sir John Wallop cross to Low Countries
French and English naval engagement in the Narrow Seas, 6 July
Act for the Advancement of True Religion restricts access to English bible
The Necessary Doctrine and Erudition of a Christian Man, revision of Bishop's Book, 
    adopted by Convocation; came to be called The King's Book
Cranmer submits Book of Homilies to Convocation
Hans Holbein the Younger dies, 7 October
William Byrd, composer, born
"Act of Union" with Wales
Treaty of Greenwich to end war with Scotland,
Engagement of Prince Edward and Mary Queen of Scots
Scottish parliament renounces Treaty of Greenwich, 11 December

Mikolaj Kopernik (Copernicus), De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
Versalius, De humani corporis fabrica

Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmeyer), Haman

English Parliament bans 'interpretations of Scripture' on public stages 

Charles V invades France, reaches Soissons, 12 September
Charles and Francis sign Treaty of Crépy-en-Laonnois, September
First rats arrive in America

"Rough Wooing" of Scotland begun to force compliance with Treaty of Greenwich
Henry VIII orders burning of books with news of Scottish army’s success
Mary’s and Elizabeth’s rights of succession after Edward re-affirmed by Parliament
English translation of the Litany published, reduced role for saints, May
Sir William Petre becomes Secretary of State, retains office until 1557
William Gilbert, physician and scientist, born, Colchester
English occupy Boulougne (until 1550), 18 September
Parliament confers title "Defender of the Faith" (Fidei Defensor) upon Henry VIII, 23 years after Leo X gave it to him

Gillis van Coninxloo, Flemish painter, born, 24 January

Torquato Tasso born, 11 March

Songhai forces sack Mali Empire capitol, Niani
Council of Trent convened

Francis I of France issues the "Arrêt de Mérindol," begins massacre of Waldensians   1 January
Diego Gualpa discovers rich lode of silver in Cerro Rico, Peru
Silver discovered in Potosi, Bolivia

Sir Thomas Bodley born, 2 March
Henry Darnley born, 7 December
William Cecil marries Mildred Cooke, 21 December
Henry VIII makes his last speech to Parliament, 24 December
Dr. William Butts, royal physician, dies
Master of Revels made "standing office" under Lord Chamberlain
Chantries Act: Property of colleges, fraternaties, brotherhoods and guilds confiscated
King's Prymer published and required in all schools

Books I and II of Serlio’s Architetettura published in Paris

Martin Luther dies, 18 February
Johannes Piscator, Protestant theologian, author & Bible translator, born, 27 March (d, 1625)
Schmalkaldic War, between Charles V  and the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League

Henry VIII abolishes all books containing "errors and heresy,"  8 July
Anne Askew and John Lascells burned for denying transubstantiation, 16 July
Treaty of Ardres (or Guines): peace with France
George Wishart burned as heretic in Scotland, 1 March
Scottish Cardinal Beaton assasinated by Wishart's followers, 29 May
Sir Thomas Elyot dies
Christ Church College at Oxford replaces Wolsey’s "Cardinal College"
Henry VIII establishes Regius professorships at Oxford
Plague, possibly typhus or influenza, sweeps Mexican native population

Michelangelo, (Rime) Poems
First modern pharmacopoeia published in Nürnberg, Germany

Charles V defeats Schmalkaldic League at Battle of Mühlberg, 24 April
Francis I of France dies, succeeded by his son Henri II
Ivan IV, "The Terrible," becomes Grand Duke of Moscow, adopts the title "Tsar"
Miguel de Cervantes baptised in Alcalá de Heraves, 9 October
Hernando Cortez dies, 2 December
St. Cajetan dies in Naples

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, poet and courtier, executed for treason, 19 January
Duke of Norfolk sent to the Tower, 27 January
Henry VIII dies, 28 January
Edward VI crowned, 20 February
Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford made Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector
Dissolution of the Chantries
Clerical marriage permitted
Cranmer's Book of Homilies placed in Churches
Bishops Gardiner and Bonner imprisoned at Fleet
Historian Edward Hall dies
Scots defeated at Battle of Pinkie, 10 September
Six Articles and Henrician treason statutes revoked
Almost all craft guilds in England, except for London Companies, abolished
Act for the Punishing of Vagabonds, I Edward VI, c. 3

Nicholas Hilliard born

Thomas Cranmer, First Book of Homilies
Thomas Sternhold, Psalms, English metrical translation

Portugese traders "discover" Japan
Charles V defeats Protestant forces in Battle of Mühlberg, imposes "Interim of Augsburg"
Parlement de Paris bans Mystery plays
Silver discovered in Zacatecas, Mexico   

Hugh Latimer preaches Sermon of the Plough at St. Paul's, 18 January

Somerset issues Order of Communion, 8 March
Abolition of the Feast of Corpus Christi in England
Pietro Martire Vermigli, "Peter Martyr," becomes Regius professor at Oxford
Catherine Parr dies, 5 September


Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre and Yorke
Ignatius Loyola, Spiritual Exercises
Francesco Robertello's translation of Aristotle’s Poetics 

Pope Paul III dies
Margaret of Navarre dies, 2 December

Sir Thomas Seymour executed, 20 March
Fully vernacular liturgy adopted by Parliament, 21 January; approved by crown, 14 March
Act of Uniformity, Cranmer's First Book of Prayer, go into effect, Whit Sunday, 9 June
"Prayer Book Rebellion," Devon and Cornwall, June - August
Uprisings against enclosure in southwestern counties
Ket’s Rebellion in East Anglia occupies Mousehold Heath outside Norwich
Fall of Somerset, October
Regency power passes to John Dudley, Earl of Warwick (later Duke of Northumberland)
Martin Bucer named Regius Professor at Cambridge, completes De Regno Christi 

Discourse of the Common Weal of this Realm of England

Giovanni Maria del Monte elected Pope Julius III
Charles IX of France born, 27 June

Joan Boucher, "Joan of Kent," burned as heretic, May
Lord Robert Dudley, Earl of Warwick’s 5th son, marries Amy Robsart, 4 June
City of London purchases crown lands on South Bank
John Napier born at Merchiston, near Edinnburgh

Orazio Vecchi, Italian composer, born
Emilio del Cavalieri, oratorio composer of Florentine camarata, born

T’ang Hsein-tsu, Chinese playwright,  born
Juan de la Cueva, Spanish playwright, born

Vasari, Lives of the Painters, first edition
Hans Sachs, The Schoolboy Wandering in Paradise

Ottomans complete conquest of all of North Africa except Morroco
Henry III of France born, 19 September
Martin Bucer dies, February
Russians seize Kazan
King Tabinshweti of Burma beheaded by his chamberlain while hunting fictitious white elephant

William Camden born in London, 2 May
Lord Robert Dudley made Gentleman of the King’s Privy Chamber, 15 August
Regent John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, creates himself Duke of Northumberland, October
Duke of Somerset  arrested, 11 October
Edward VI proclaims new coinage for England, shilling "called down" to 6d., 28 October
Outbreak of "Sweating Sickness" in London

Peiter Brueghel the Elder admitted to Antwerp painters' guild

Sebastiano Serlio, Extraordinario Libro, Book VII of the Architetturo
Louis de Blois, Institutio Spiritualis
Sir Thomas More, Utopia, in English translation by Ralph Robinson
A. Frycz Modrzewski, De republica emendanda

Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmeyer), Jeremiah

Treaty of Chamford betwen Henri II of France and German protestants, January
Francis Xavier dies, 2 December
Guru Angad, second head of Sikhism, dies, succeeded by Guru Amar Das

Duke of Somerset executed, 22 January
Parliament convenes, 23 January
Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice, dies, 1 February
Parliament enacts Poor Law mandating local relief of the poor
Second Prayer Book of King Edward VI, draws on radical Continental models
Bridewell receives Royal Charter
Richard Hakluyt born
First royal patent to encourage "projects" given Henry Smyth to make glass

Sir David Lindsay, Ane Satyr of the Thrie Estaitis, performed at Cupar, Fife, Scotland, 7 June
Etienne Jodelle, Cléopâtre Captive, pioneer French tragedy
Naogeorgus (Thomas Kirchmeyer), Judas

Bartolommeo Eustachio, Tabulae Anatomicae (describes "Eustachian tube" and "Eustacian valve")
Las Casas, Historia general de las Indias
Montemayor, Diana

François Rabelais dies in Paris, 1 March
Henri de Bourbon-Navarre born at Pau, son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d”Albret and heir, 
     after Henri II‘s sons, to the French crown, 13 December 
New wave of anti-Semitic persecutions breaks out in Europe, aimed at suspect "converts"
Shen Ching born

Edward VI opens Parliament, 1 March; dissolves it, 31 March
Sir Hugh Willoughby sails in search of North-East passage, 20 May
Lady Jane Grey marries Lord Guilford Dudley, Northumberland’s son, 21 May
Edward VI dies, 6 July, 
Lady Jane Grey declared Queen, 10 July
Northumberland leads force against Princess Mary, 13 July. She escapes.
Mary proclaimed Queen, 20 July
Elizabeth takes up residence at Somerset House, 30 July
Queen Mary enters London with Princess Elizabeth, 3 August
Edward VI buried at Westminster, 8 August
Earl of Northumberland beheaded, 21 August
Catholic Mass sung at Saint Paul’s, 24 August
Edward Courtenay made Earl of Devonshire, 3 September
Mary I crowned, 30 October
Richard Tottell granted patent to publish law books
John Lyly born, probably in Kent.


Ferrara Bible, fisrt Spanish Old Testament, in different editions for Jews and Christians
Anonymus, Lazarillo de Tormes

Sebastiano Serlio dies in Fontainbleau

Sir Thomas Wyatt and followers reach Southwark, 3 February
Sir Thomas Wyatt captured, 8 February
Lady Jane Grey and Guilford Dudley executed, 12 February
Elizabeth sent to The Tower, 18 March
Sir Thomas Wyatt executed, 11 April
Mary of Guise becomes Regent of Scotland, 12 April
Stephen Gossen born, 17 April
Elizabeth released from The Tower to Woodstock, 19 May
Queen Mary marries Philip of Spain, son of Charles V, 25 July
Parliament repeals the 1534 "Act of Supremacy"

Bishops Ridley and Latimer burned at the stake, 16 October
Sir Philip Sidney born, 30 November
London syndicate fits out five ships to explore the Guinea coast for possible trade

Sir David Lindsay, Ane Satyr of the Thrie Estaitis, performed at Edinburgh, 12 August

Fray Luis de Granada, Book of Prayer and Meditation, in Spain

Charles V resigns the sovereignty of The Netherlands to his son Philip
Pope Julius III dies 23 March
Cardinal Marcello Cervino becomes Pope Marcellus II, dies 30 April
Cardinal Giovanni Pietro Caraffa elected Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV declares that Jews must be segregated in a quarter apart from Christians
Teresa of Avila commits herself to religious life
Peace of Augsburg, September
Agricola dies, Saxony, 21 November
Imperial and Florentine troops capture Sienna
Serious famine in northwest India

John, Earl of Bedford, dies 14 March
Archbishop Thomas Cranmer burned at the stake, 21 March
Elizabeth is allowed to go to Hatfield, 18 October
Bishop Stephen Gardiner dies, 12 November
Sir Thomas Pope founds Trinity College at Oxford
Muscovy Company of Merchant Adventurers formed by Richard Chancellor et al

Sir David Lindsay dies

Lodovico Carracci, Italian painter, born, 21 April
Francisco Ribalta, Spanish painter, born, 22 June

Charles I of Spain (Emperor Charles V) abdicates crown in favor of his son, Philip II, January
Philip II and Henri II enter into Truce of Vaucelles
Landsberg Alliance, Ferdinand I unites Catholic and Protestant Princes against Ottomans

St. Joseph Calasanz born in Aragon
Michel de Nostradamus dies, 2 July
Pietro Aretino dies in Venice, 21 October
Saint Ignatius of Loyola dies, 31 July
Russians occupy Astrakhan
Earthquake in Shaanxi, China, kills estimated 830,000
English, after long injunction, permit hops to be added to beer

Hans Sachs, Der Paur im Egfeur

Agricola, De Re Metallica
Giovanni della Casa, Il Galateo, influential "courtesy" book
Henri II breaks Truce of Vaucelles;  Duke of Guise invades Italy
Spanish invade France from the Netherlands, defeat French at St. Quentin, 10 August
Manuel I of Portugal dies, succeeded by Sebastian
Niccolò Tartaglia, Italian mathematician, dies, Venice, 13 December

Anne of Cleves dies, 16 July
English Privy Council grants Stationers Guild monopoly on printing 

Agostino Carracci, Italian painter, born, 16 August

Giovanni Gabrieli born
Thomas Morley, English composer, born

Sir Thomas More, Works, in English, including The History of King Richard the Third

Calais falls to the French, 5 January
Epidemic of influenza in Venice
Jean François Fernel, pioneer French physician, dies, Fontainbleu, Seine-et-Marne, 26 April

Mary, Queen of Scots, marries Francis, Dauphin of France, 24 April ? or 25 August ?
Joan Shakespeare, William’s sister, christened, 15 September
Queen Mary I dies, 17 November (buried 14 December), Elizabeth succeeds
Militia Act
Anthony Jenkinson, representing the Muscovy Company of Merchant Adventurers, arrives in Moscow

Robert Greene born in Norwich, baptized 11 July
Thomas Kyd born in London, 6 November
George Peele born, London

John Knox, First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women

Pope Paul IV dies, succeeded by Giovanni Angelo de’ Medici as Pius IV
1st Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis: French to occupy Calais for eight years, 2 April
2nd Treaty of  Cateau-Cambrésis: End of French influence in Italy, 3 April
Henri II of France, mortally wounded in a joust, dies, succeeded by his son Francis II
Francis II crowned King of France, 18 September
Italians invent ice cream
Conrad Gesner first notes a "tulip," from Constantinople in an Augsberg garden

Robert Dudley appointed Master of the Horse, 11 January
Queen Elizabeth crowned, 15 January
Act of Uniformity, 8 May
Proclamation forbidding unlicensed Interludes, plays or stage treatment of religion or policy, 16 May
Queen Elizabeth’s Prayer Book issued, 22 June
Scottish "Lords of the Congregation" oppose French Catholic domination
John Knox returns to Scotland from Geneva, May
Matthew Parker becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, 17 December
John Shakespeare appointed petty constable of Stratford-on-Avon, 6 October

Nicodemus Bandinelli, Pietá

First mention of "Earl of Leicester’s Men" in letter to Earl of Shrewsbury, June

Akbar becomes emperor of Moghul India
Francis II, King of France, husband of Mary Queen of Scots, dies of tubercular meningitis, 5 December
Charles IX, the late king’s brother, becomes King of France
Elector Palatine Friedrich III converts to Calvinism

Jeanne d’Albret, mother of Henri de Bourbon-Navarre, declares her adherence to Calvinism,  Christmas
First smallpox epidemic in Brazil
Marie of Guise, mother of Mary Queen of Scots, dies, 11 June
England and France withdraw forces from Scotland after Treaty of Edinburgh, July
Scottish Parliemeent accept protestant Confession of Faith, August
Dutch theologian Arminius born

Treaty of Edinburgh, 6 July, forces French withdrawal from Scotland
Scottish Parliament accepts Protestant "Confession of Faith," 17 August,
     subsequently abolishes Catholic Church and forbids Mass
Amy Robsart, wife of Robert Dudley, is found dead, 8 September
Will Sommers, "Poor Man's Friend," Henry VIII's jester, buried, 15 June

Annibale Carracci born, 3 November

Carlo Gesualdo, Italian composer, born
Joachim du Bellay dies

George Chapman born (?)
Henry Chettle born (?)
Anthony Munday born

Francis Bacon born, 22 January
Mary Queen of Scots lands in Scotland at Leith, 19 August
Philip II withdraws Spanish troops from The Netherlands
Menno Simons dies at Wüstenfelde, Holstein, 31 January
Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke, born, 27 October
Lord Ambrose Dudley made Earl of Warwick, 26 December

Jacopa Peri, camerata composer, born
Term "sonata" first used to describe a suite of dances for the lute

John Stow, A Summarie of Englysh Chronicles, first of eleven editions in Stow's lifetime
John Stow's edition of The Works of Chaucer
Ruy Lopez, Libro de la invencion liberal y arte dul Juego del Acerez, on chess
Seneca, Hercules Furens, first English translation by Jasper Heywood
Leopolita Bible, or "Old Cracow Bible," Polish translation of Vulgate by John of Lemberg, printed in Cracow
Gabriele Falloppio, aka "Falloppius," Anatomy, published in Venice

French Catholics defeat Huguenots at Battle of Dreux, 19 December
Spain establishes state monopoly in weapons production

Venice enacts sumptuary law mandating that all gondolas be painted black
Gabriele Falloppio, aka "Falloppius," pioneer anatomist, dies, Padua, October 9

Queen Elizabeth nearly dies of smallpox
Robert Dudley created High Steward of Cambridge
English under Sir Adrian Poynings capture Le Havre, 4 October
Margaret Shakespeare, William’s sister, christened, 22 December

Orazio Gentileschi, Italian painter, born, 9 July

Lope de Vega born, 25 November

Plays Produced:
Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville, Gorbuduc
Trissino’s Sophonisba produced in Vicenza by the Olympic Academy

Fray Diego de Estella,  Book of the Vanity of the World
Arthur Brooke, The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet
John Heywood, Works
Geneva Bible, 2nd edition, a.k.a. "Placemakers Bible," Matthew 5:9, "Blessed are the placemakers..."

Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Fall of the Rebel Angels

Peace of Amboise, 25 March
Le Havre surrenders to the French, 27 July

Convocation approves "Thirty-Nine Articles" of English Church
Plague returns to London
The "Statute of Artificers" attempts to regulate apprentice-journeyman rules
John Hawkyns returns from first privateering and slave trading voyage to Africa and Spanish Main
Margaret Shakespeare, dies, buried, 30 April

First edition of Foxe’s Actes and Monuments, or Book of Martyrs
Richard Grafton, An Abridgement of the Chronicles of England, February
John Shute, The First and Chief Grounds of Architecture

Pieter Brueghel the Elder, The Flight into Egypt

Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I dies, succeeded by his son Maximilian II
Duke Cosimo de' Medici of Florence abdicates in favor of his son Francesco
Spanish occupy Philippines and build Manila
Pedro Menendez founds Saint Augustine, Florida
Pope Pius IV confirms Council of Trent’s "Professio Fidei"
Galileo Galilei born, 15 February
John Calvin dies, 27 May
Peace of Troyes with France
Andreas Vesalius dies
Willam Bathe, Irish Jesuit educational innovator, born in Dublin, d. 1614
Amsterdam building ordinance requires municipal approval of pilings and other provisons

Company of Mines Royal, pioneer chartered joint-stock venture, created
Merchant Venturers granted new royal charter

John Hawkins leaves on his second voyage to the New World
Robert Dudley created Earl of Leicester, 29 September
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, named Chancellor of Oxford University
Plague strikes Stratford, 11 July
John Shakespeare is named in list of Stratford burgesses, 27 September
Graphite deposits found in Borrowdale, Cumberland, lead to invention of crude pencils

Last Norwich Corpus Christi play cycle performed
Palladio designs Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza
Christopher Marlowe born in Canterbury, 6 February
William Shakespeare born, Stratford-upon-Avon, 23 April (?), christened, 26 April

Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Christ Carrying the Cross, The Adoration of the Kings
Pieter Brueghel the Younger born
Michelangelo Buonarotti dies in Rome, 18 December
Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch painter, born, 25 December

Pedro Menendez founds St. Augustine, Florida
Francesco de' Medici marries Archduchess Joanna of Austria
Pope Pius IV dies
Wolfgang Lazius dies, 19 June

Mary Queen of Scots marries Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, son of Mathew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, 29 July
Sir Thomas Chaloner dies, 7 October

Matriculation Statute establishes college affiliation requirement for students at Oxford
Royal College of Physicians allowed to perform human dissections
Company of Mineral and Battery Works chartered as joint-stock company
Sir John Hawkins introduces sweet potatoes and tobacco into England
John Shakespeare elected Stratford Alderman, 4 July, installed 12 September

First corrales opened in Madrid for staging of plays

Pierre de Ronsard, Elegies
Arthur Golding, translation of first four books of Ovid’s Metamorphoses
Thomas Cooper, Thesaurus linguae Romanae et Britannicae
Richard Grafton, A Manuell of the Chronicles of Englande from the Creacion of the World
Sir Thomas Smith, De Republica Anglorum
Bernardino Telesio, De rerum natura
Cinthio, Gli ecatommiti

Pieter Brueghel, The Months

Ottoman sultan Suleyman the Magnificent dies; his son Selim II, aka "Selim the Sot," succeeds him
Cardinal Michael Ghislieri becomes Pope Pius V
Nostradomus dies, 1 July
Diane de Poitiers, mistress of Henri II, dies
Notizie Scritte, one of the first newspapers, appears in Venice

David Riccio murdered in Edinburgh, 9 March
James, son of Mary Queen of Scots, born, 19 June
Archbishop Parker’s Advertisements require all English clergy to wear surplice
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, born, 10 November
Queen Elizabeth makes first of two visits to Oxford University. Does not return until 1592.
Gilbert Shakespeare, William’s brother, christened, 13 October

Edward Alleyn born

Pieter Brueghel the Elder, St. John the Baptist

George Gascoigne, The Supposes, based on Ariosto’s Gli Suppositi

William Aldington’s translation of Apuleius’ The Golden Ass
William Painter, Palace of Pleasures Beautified

Pietro Loredan elected Doge of Venice
Rio de Janeiro founded
Nobunaga deposes the shogunate in Japan
Catholic church bars sale of indulgences

Rugby School founded
Lord Darnley murdered at Kirk O’Field on the Flodden Wall, Edinburgh, 10 February
Mary, Queen of Scots, marries Bothwell, 15 May; they separate 15 June
Mary, Queen of Scots, imprisoned in Lochleven, 17 June
Mary abdicates; James VI declared King of Scotland, Earl of Moray regent, 24 July, crowned 29 July
Francis Drake accompanies Hawkyns on his third voyage to the West Indies

Richard Burbage born
Thomas Nashe born
Red Lion Inn built in London, used for playing

Claudio Monteverdi born

Pieter Brueghel, Adoration of the Magi
Titian, Jacopo de Strada

Geoffrey Fenton, Bandello: Tragical Tales

Treaty of Longjumeau ends Second War of Religion in France
Gerardus Mercator devises cylindrical projection

Archbishop Parker’s "Bishop’s Bible" published
William Allen founds "English College" at Douai to train Jesuit missionaries for England
Sir Henry Wotton born, 30 March
Mary, Queen of Scots, escapes imprisonment at Lochleven and flees to England, 2 May
John Hemminge dies, 10 October
Miles Coverdale dies
The Company of London Bricklayers and Tylers incorporated

Juan Martinez Montañes, Spanish sculptor, born, 16 March

First modern eiteddfod for Welsh music and literature held at Caerwys
First public theatre performance in Madrid

Vasari, Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects, second, expanded edition
Richard Grafton, A Chronicle at large, and meere History of the Affayres of Englande. . .

Pope Paul V grants Cosimo de' Medici title of Grand Duke of Tuscany
Hugenauts defeated near Jarnac by duc d’Anjou. Condé killed.  13 March 
Mikolaj Rej, "Father of Polish Literature," dies

First lottery held in England at the steps of St. Paul’s, 11 January, to finance port repairs
Northern Rising in favor of Mary, Queen of Scots, Durham Cathedral sacked
Richard Tottel translates Henry de Bracton’s On the Laws and Customs of England
English court frees imported Russian slave: "England was too pure an air for slaves to breathe in."
Joan Shakespeare, William’s sister, christened, 15 April

Last Corpus Christi play cycle performed in York
Sussex’ Men perform at Nottingham, 16 March

Pieter Brueghel the Elder dies, 5 September

William Wager, The Longer Thou Livest the More Fool Thou Art
Gerardus Mercator publishes Cosmographia and map of the world
Richard Grafton, A Chronicle at Large and Mere History of the Affairs of England
The Bear Bible, by Spanish Protestants, printed at Basle

Ottomans capture Cyprus, declare war on Venice
Peace of St. Germain-en-Laye ends Third Religous War in France, amnesty for Huguenots
Pietro Loredan, Doge of Venice, dies, succeeded by Alvise Mocenigo I
Sondonierz Consensus between Polish Catholics and Protestants
Jean Antoine de Baïf founds Académie de Poésie et de Musique, Paris
Samuel de Champlain born Earl of Moray, Regent of Scotland, murdered by James Hamilton, 22 January
Earl of Lennox, Darnley's father, succeeds as Regent of Scotland
George Buchanan appointed James' tutor
Guy Fawkes born, 16 April
English Plantation of East Ulster founded
Regnans in Excelsis,Pope Pius V's bull of excommunication against Elizabeth, Corpus Christi Day

Lord Mayor of London forbids theatrical performances in the City
Lodovico Castelvetro urges adoption of Aristotelian principles in contemporary drama
Thomas Dekker born (?)

Robert Ascham, The Schoolmaster
Andrea Palladio,  I quattro libri dell’architettura, The Four Books of Architecture, in Venice
Euclid published in England, with introduction by John Dee
Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum orbis terrarum
Francois de Belleforest, Histoires Tragiques, source for Hamlet
Alexander Barclay, Certain Eclogues
Castelvetro’s translation of Aristotle’s Poetics

Tintoretto, Moses Striking the Rock

Turks capture Famagusta, Cyprus, and massacre population
Battle of Lepanto, Don John of Austria and Spanish fleet defeat Turks, 7 October
Miguel de Cervantes wounded in Battle of Lepanto
Johannes Kepler born, 27 December

Royal Exchange dedicated by Queen Elizabeth in London, 23 January
William Cecil named Lord Burghley
Parliament forbids export of wool from England
Thirty-Nine Articles enforced among the clergy
Mary, Queen of Scots, implicated in Ridolfi Plot to depose Elizabeth
English Presbyterians publish The Admonition to the Parliament
Hamilton, Earl of Lennox, regent of Scotland, shot and killed at Stirling, 4 September 
Earl of Mar succeeds as Regent of Scotland
Bishop Jewel dies in Scotland, 23 September
"Usury Act" passed permitting interest on loans of up to 10%
Oxford struck by "violent Plague"
Oxford and Cambridge Universities incorporated by act of Parliament
Jesus College founded at Oxford by Hugh Price
John Lyon founds Harrow School
Blacksmiths’ and Joiners’ Companies incorporated in London
Anne Shakespeare, William’s sister, christened, 28 September

Tirso de Molina born
Juan de Mal Lara dies

Benvenutto Cellini dies in Florence, 14 February
Michelangelo Merisi born in Caravaggio
Giogio Vasari dies
Palladio, Loggia del Capitanio, Vicenza
Titian, Christ Crowned with Thorns

Nicodemus Frischlin, Priscianus vapulans, Priscianus Afflicted, Latin satire

Pope Pius V dies, Cardinal Ugo Buoncompagni elected Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII appoints commission to study calendar reform
Dutch War of Independence against Spain begins
Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre, dies.  Her son Henri becomes King of Navarre.  9 June
Henri de Navarre marries Margaret de Valois, sister of Charles IX of France  18 August 
"St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre" in Paris, two thousand protestants murdered    24 August 
Fourth War of Religion begins in France
Heinrich Gutberleth, innovative educator, b. in Hersfeld,

John Knox dies, 24 November
James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, succeeds John Erskine, Earl of Mar, as regent of Scotland, 24 November
Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, executed for conspiring with Mary Queen of Scots
Earl of Northumberland executed for treason
Parliament demands execution of Mary Queen of Scots
Leicester entertains the Queen at Kenilworth
Earl of Sussex named Lord Chamberlain
Burghley made Lord Treasurer
Parliament requires payment of poor relief from all householders not receiving alms in
     "Acte for the punishement of Vacabondes and for the Releif of the Poore and Impotent"
John Field and Thomas Wilcox circulate Admonition calling for church reform
Society of Antiquaries founded in London

Ben Jonson born in Westminster, London, 11 June

Ortelius, Théâtre de l’Universe
Thomas Wilson, A Discourse upon Usery
Matthew Parker, De antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae
Bishops Bible, third edition, called "Leda Bible" for controversial illustrations from Ovid's Metamorphoses

Peace of Constantinople ends war between Turks and Venice
Fourth War of Religion ends in France
Wan-Li begins reign as 13th emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China
Príncipe taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown
Central tower of Cathédrale Saint Pierre in Beauvais collapses

Sir Francis Walsingham made chief Secretary of State
Dr. John Caius dies, 19 July
Privy Council augments general militia with "trained bands," or specialist militia
English invade Scotland to secure position of Protestant Regent
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, marries Lady Sheffield, daughter of Lord Howard, May
Francis Drake sees Pacific Ocean for the first time
John Donne born in London

Thomas Heywood born in Lincolnshire
Inigo Jones born, 15 July

Paolo Veronese called before Inquisition in Rome

Jocasta, translated by Gascoigne and Kinwelmarshe from Italian adaptation of Euripides' Phoenissae.
     First Greek tragedy in English
Torquato Tasso, Aminta

Hafsid dynasty ends in Tunisia
Guru Amar Das, third head of Sikhism, dies; succeeded by Guru Ram Das
Cosimo de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, dies in Florence
King Charles IX of France dies of pulmonary tuberculosis, succeeded by his brother Henri III 
Fifth War of Religion begins in France
Fire destroys part of Venice's Ducal Palace
Conrad Dasypodius builds The Strasbourg Clock
Portuguese colonize Angola and found Sao Paolo
First New World victims of Spanish Inquisition burned at the stake, 28 February

Anne of Denmark, future wife of James I, born, 12 December
Andrew Melville returns to Scotland from Geneva
Richard Shakespeare, William’s brother, christened, 11 March

Earl of Leicester’s Men, including James Burbage, licensed to play in London and at court
Richard Farrant opens The Blackfriars
John Day born in Crawston, Norfolk

John Wilbye, composer, born

Tintoretto, Paradiso in Doge’s Palace, Venice

Spanish government declared bankrupt
King Henri III of France founds Académie du Palais
William of Orange founds Leiden University
Tycho Brahe constructs observatory at Uraniborg for Frederick II of Denmark
First European imitations of Chinese porcelain made in Venice and Florence
Plague outbreaks in Sicily spread to Italy up to Milan
Plague reduces Venetian population by ninety percent

English Parliament guarantees freedom from arrest for its members and their servants
Edmund Grindal becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Leicester entertains Queen Elizabeth for 19 days at Kenilworth

Cyril Tourneur born

Veronese, Moses Saved from the Waters
Guido Reni, Italian painter, born, 4 November

William Boyd and Thomas Tallis, Cantiones cacrae, 34 motets

Last Chester Corpus Christi play cycle performed

George Turberville, Book of Falconrie
Memoir of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, 17 years captive of Indians in Florida.  Uses name "Tanpa"
Piccolomini’s translation of Aristotle’s Poetics
Works of Gabriele Falloppio, aka "Falloppius," published posthumously by Volcher Coiter, Nuremberg

Henri Bourbon-Navarre escapes from French court and renounces his allegiance to Catholicism   January
Act of Federation between Holland and Zeeland signed at Delft
Edict of Beaulieu decrees toleration of Reformed religion in France
Emperor Maximilian II dies, succeeded by his brother Rudolf II
Spanish sack Antwerp
Plague in Milan
Public gatherings prohibited in Venice for plague, but ban is ignored for Titian's state funeral.

League of Torgau draws up Lutheran Articles of Faith
Elector Palatine Ludwig VI reverts to Lutheranism

François Viète introduces decimal numbers

Robert Devereux succeeds his father as Earl of Essex, 21 September
Martin Frobisher begins first of three voyages in search of the NW passage, finds Frobisher Bay in Baffin Is.

James Burbage and John Brayne sign twenty-year lease on a lot in Shoreditch with Giles Alleyn, 13 April
"The Theatre" built by James Burbage in Finsbury Fields, Shoreditch
John Marston born in Wardington, Oxfordshire, baptized 7 October
Hans Sachs, playwright and Meistersinger, dies

Last Wakefield Corpus Christi play cycle performed

Benvenuto Cellini dies, 13 February
Titian dies, 27 August

George Gascoigne, The Steele Glas, verse satire
William Lambarde, Perambulation of Kent, inspired later county histories
Thomas Digges, publishes a new edition of his father's  A Prognostication everlasting, adding an appendix on Copernican theory, a first in England


Guru Ram Das founds The Golden Temple of Amritsar, holiest site of Sikhism
Alvise Mocenigo I, Doge of Venice, dies
Henri de Navarre recognized as head of Huguenot party
Sixth War of Religion begins in France, 
Treaty of Bergerac accepted by Huguenots, truce in French religious wars  17 September
Milan Cathedral consecrated by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo
Beatrice Cenci born
Hernando de Herrara, Spanish poet, dies

Mary Sidney marries Earl of Pembroke, 21 April
Sir Thomas Smith dies, 12 August
Robert Burton born in Lindley, Leicesterchire, 8 February
Serious plague epidemic strikes Oxford
Archbishop Grindal suspended in dispute with Queen over "prophesyings"
Drake leaves Plymouth for round-the-world voyage, 13 December

Curtain Theater opens under management of Henry Lanman
Inigo Jones born, 15 July
George Gascoigne dies

El Greco settles in Toledo
El Greco, Assumption of the Virgin, alterpiece in San Domingo el Antiguo, Toledo
Rubens born, 28 June

William Harrison, Description of England
Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, first edition

King Sebastian of Portugal killed at Battle of Alcazar, succeeded by Henry I
Jesuit English College of Douai removed to Rheims
Catacombs of Rome discovered
Le Pont Neuf begun in Paris

Earl of Morton resigns as Regent, James VI assumes government of Scotland, March
Second Book of Discipline establishes presbyterian system in Scotland
William Harvey born, 1 April
Bothwell dies in Denmark, 14 April
Elizabeth visits Theobald's, 21 July
Earl of Leicester secretly marries Countess of Essex, 21 September? Or 11 January?
Levant Trading Company founded in London
Drake seizes ship loaded with Chilean wine off Valparaiso

Adam Elsheimer, German painter, born, 18 March
Sinan Pasha, Ottoman court architect, dies

Euphues: The Anatomy of Wit, by John Lyly
All for Money, by Thomas Lupton
Dismissal of the Greek Envoys, Kochanowski, at Jazdów, near Warsaw

Jesuit English College removed from Rheims to Rome
Dutch Republic founded with Union of Utrecht
Portughese merchants found trading station in Bengal

English form military alliance with Dutch Estates
Sir Francis Drake claims California for England
Anne Shakespeare, William’s sister, buried, 4 April
Sir Thomas Gresham, ex-Lord Mayor and founder of Royal Exchange, dies, 21 November
"Desmond Rebellion" begins in Munster, Ireland
Eastland Company founded for English trading with Scandinavia
John Stubbs sentenced to have his hand cut off for criticizing Anglo-French marriage plans
Thomas Seckford appointed surveyor of the Court of Wards and Liveries, reward for Saxton's atlas
Richard Field apprenticed to printer Thomas Vautrollier

Edmund Tilney becomes Master of Revels
Last Coventry Corpus Christi play cycle performed
Newington Butts theatre built, managed by Philip Henslowe
John Fletcher born, Rye, Sussex, December

El Greco, The Christ Despoiled, Toledo
Frans Snyders, Flemish painter, born, 11 November

Sir Thomas North’s translation of Plutarch’s Lives
Edmund Spenser, The Shepheard’s Calendar, 12 ecologues
Stephen Gossen, onetime dramatist, The Schools of Abuse, against theatres
Thomas Lodge responds to Gossen with A Defense of Poetry, Music and Stage Plays
Christopherr Saxton, Atlas of England with county maps, commissioned by Thomas Seckford
Gaspar Loarte, Instructions and Advertisements, How to meditate the Misteries of the Rosarie and Exercise of a Christian Life (English translations)


King Henry I of Portugal dies, Portugese throne claimed by Philip II of Spain
The Book of Concord, defining Lutheran doctrines, published in Dresden,  25 June
Carlo Emannuel I becomes Duke of Savoy

Saint Peter Claver born in Spain

Earthquake in England, centered near Oxford, felt in London, 6 April
New building banned in London to stem growth
Jesuit missionaries Edmund Campion and Robert Parsons arrive in England
Drake completes around the world voyage, knighted by Elizabeth
Royal proclamation seeks to regulate wages in London
Royal proclamation bans Anabaptist sect "The Family of Love"
John Taylor, "the Water Poet," born
Edmund Shakespeare, William’s brother, christened, 3 May

John Webster born, London, died sometime in the 1630’s
Thomas Middleton born, London, baptized, 18 April
Sunday performance at Theatre prompts indictment of Burbage and Brayne, 21 February

Paolo Veronese, The Rape of Europa
Frans Hals born
Andreas Palladio dies after commencing construction of Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza
Francesco Mochi, Italian sculptor, born, 29 July

English melody "Greensleeves" mentioned for the first time

Michel de Montaigne, Essais, Books I & II
John Stow, Annales, or a Generall Chronicle of England
Torquato Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered

Edmund Campion convicted of treason and executed
James VI of Scotland signs "Second Confession of Faith"
Earl of Leicester granted manors of Great and Little Hampton, 9 January
Earl of Morton, convicted of complicity in the murder of Darnley, beheaded by "The Maiden," a forerunner of the guillotine, June
Richard Hathaway, Shakespeare’s father-in-law, writes will, 1 September
English Parliament approves fine against "popish recusants’
Revised Oxford "Statute of Matriculation" requires subscription to "39 Articles" and "Royal Supremacy"
Francis Drake seizes Spanish treasure ship Cacafuego off Panama
Queen Elizabeth knights Drake in ceremony at Royal Dockyards in Deptford, 4 April

Caravaggio, Martyrdom of St. Maurice
Domenichino, Italian painter, born, 21 October

Juan Ruiz de Alarcón born in Mexico

Plays Produced:
George Peele, The Arraignment of Paris, pastoral play
Beaujoyeux stages earliest extant ballet, Ballet comique de la Reine, at Louvre, 15 October

Coroso, Il Ballerino, treatise on dance technique
Arthur Hall’s translation of Homer’s Iliad
Cardinal Bellarmine, Disputations de Contraverssi fidei
"Ostrog Bible," first complete Slavonic edition, published in Ostrog, Volhynia, Russia 

Gregorian Calendar adopted in Papal States, Spain and Portugal, 15 October
Gregorian Calendar adopted in France, Netherlands, and Scandinavia, December
Norbunaga, ruler of Japan, assassinated
Saint Theresa of Avila dies
Jesuit mission founded in China

James VI of Scotland kidnapped at Ruthven
London waterworks founded, water wheels installed on London Bridge
All Catholic clergy found in England subject to execution, 100 executed by 1603
University of Edinburgh founded
Humphrey Gilbert enters St. John's Harbor and claims Newfoundland for England, leaves no colony
Marriage bond of £40 for Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway registered, 28 November

Edward Alleyn begins his acting career
Lord Hunsdon's Men, under James Burbage, premiere at Court, Christmas revels

Paolo Veronese, Allegory of the Battle of Lepanto
Giovanni Lanfranco, Italian Painter, born, 26 January

Richard Hakluyt, Divers Voyages Touching the Discovery of America
Richard Hopkins, translation of Luis de Granada's Book of Prayer and Meditation
Robert Persons, Christian Directory, Rouen
The Rheims Bible, New Testament, for training English priests in France
Robert Browne,   A Treatise of Reformation without Tarying for Anie
Robert Browne, A Booke which sheweth the life and manners of all True Christians

Duke of Alva dies in Lisbon, 12 January
Albrecht von Wallenstein born
William of Orange accepts sovereignty of the northern Netherlands
Cologne War begins, eventually devastates the Electorate of Cologne, ends 1588

Ralph Fitch and John Eldred lead English trade expeditions to Mesopotamia, India, and The Persian Gulf
James VI escapes from Ruthven raiders after 10 months captivity
Sommerville plot to assassinate Elizabeth discovered, John Sommerville executed
Throckmorton plot of Spanish invasion and assasination of Elizabeth discovered
Francis Throckmorton executed
Archbishop of Canterbury Edmund Grindel dies, succeeded by John Whitgift
Archbishop Whitgift issues Three Articles against Prebyterian minority in Church
First known life insurance policy in England, on life of William Gibbons
Lord Burghley appoints a commission to consider whether England should adopt the Gregorian calendar, as proposed by John Dee

Susannah Shakespeare, William’s daughter, christened, 26 May
Two men, promoting Congregationalism, hanged in Bury St. Edmunds for distributing Robert Browne's 1582 tracts.

John Lyly receives from Earl of Oxford the lease of the Blackfriars Theatre
Leicester's Men perform A History of Telomo at Court, last recorded performance of company, 10 February
The Queen’s Men, first royal liveried players, established by Tilney and Walsingham, March
Philip Massinger born in Salisbury, Wiltshire, baptized, 24 November

Girolamo Frescobaldi born
Orlando Gibbons, composer, born

Sir Thomas Smith, De Republica Anglorum 

Ivan the Terrible dies, 18 March, his son Fyodor succeeds but cedes power to Boris Gudonov
Germany and Switzerland adopt Gregorian calendar
William "The Silent" of Orange assassinated by Balthazar Gérard at instigation of Philip II, 10 July; 
   according to Motley, "Little children cried in the streets."
Francois, duc d’Anjou, brother of Henri III, dies, making Henri Bourbon-Navarre French heir presumptive 
Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, dies
Banco di Rialto founded in Venice
Dutch establish trading post at Archangel, Russia

Thomas Norton released from Tower, dies 10 March 
Francis, Duke d’Alençon, Elizabeth’s suiter, dies, 9 June
Robert Southwell ordained a priest, Rome
John Selden, jurist, born, 16 December
Plantation of Munster begun in Ireland
Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe, sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, explore the future site of Roanoke Is. Colony
Sir Walter Mildmay founds Emmanuel College, Oxford
Uppingham School founded
"Black Acts" in Scotland halt advance of strict Presbyterianism

Blackfriars Theatre closed, at Easter
Teatro Olimpico completed in Vicenza
Francis Beaumont born in Gracedieu, Leicestershire

Gaspar de Crayer, Flemish painter, born, 18 November

Plays Produced:
Fedele and Fortunio, Munday, Chapman and Gossen, (?)
Three Ladies of London, Robert Wilson (?)
Lyly’s Campaspe and Sappho and Phao produced at Blackfriars Theatre, later published

Giordano Bruno, Spaccio della bestia trionfante
Reginald Scot, The Discoverie of Witchcraft, attacks superstition
"G.C.," trans., Diego de Estella, The Contempte of the World, and the Vanitie therof

Pasquale Cicogna elected Doge of Venice
Henri III and Elizabeth I decline sovereignty of the Netherlands
Pope Gregory XIII dies, 10 April ( by his calendar )
Cardinal Felice Peretti becomes Pope Sixtus V
Jesuit University founded in Graz, Austria
Pierre de Ronsard dies
Saints Camillus de Lellis and Philip Neri found "Servants of the Sick," order of male nurses
Hideyoshi establishes Shogun dictatorship in Japan
Amsterdam's Herengracht laid out

Sir Francis Drake sails for Spain, 14 September, attacks Vigo and Santo Domingo
Treaty of Nonsuch commits England to aid Dutch Estates against Philip II
War with Spain commences
Leicester and Essex lead military campaign in Netherlands
Lord Charles Howard named Lord Admiral, 4 July
English Colony established at Roanoke Island, now North Carolina, 4 July
Parliament establishes government for Westminster modelled on London’s
Earl of Leicester empowered to enter African trade with the "Barbary Company"
Bartholomew Newsam constructs first English traveling and standing clocks
Simon Stevin formulates the law of equilibrium
Jamaican ginger imported to England
Hamnet and Judith Shakespeare christened, 2 February

William Rowley born (?)

Veronese, Apotheosis of Venice, Sala de Gran Consiglio, Venice
Hendrick van Avercamp, Dutch painter, born, 25 January

Heinrich Schütz born
Thomas Tallis dies

Plays Produced:
Cervantes, Galatea, pastoral romance
Battista Guarini, Il Pastor fido, pastoral play par excellance, performed at Turin
Oedipus Rex, first production staged at Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza

< style="font-family: arial;"Published:
Lucas Janszoon Waghearen, Spiegel der Zeevaart, on sailing
John Higgens, Nomenclator , definitions of popular terms
Ludwig Pfyffer forms League of the Seven Swiss Catholic Cantons
Sir Henry Sidney dies, 5 May
Star Chamber limits number of printing presses and licensed printers; assigns licensing of books to Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London, 23 June
Privy Council introduces Books of Orders regulating local Justices of the Peace
Sir Francis Drake returns from Spain, 28 July
Sir Francis Drake attacks and razes Spanish settlement at St. Augustine , Florida
English troops first engage Spanish in Netherlands
Earl of Leicester appointed "absolute governor" of Netherlands
William Camden and friends founds "Society of Antiquaries" and publishes Britannia
Trial of Babington Plot conspirators, 13 September, Mary, Queen of Scots,  implicated
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, is taken to Fotheringhay, 25 September, 
       tried for treason, 15 October, 
       sentenced to death, 25 October; 
       Parliament finds Mary guilty of treason, 29 October; 
       Parliament petitions Elizabeth to sign the death warrent, 12 November
       Mary, Queen of Scots, recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir to English crown
       Pope Sixtus V promises financial aid to Spanish Armada
Sir Philip Sidney lends his leg armour to a fellow campaigner, dies of thigh wound at Zutphen, 17 October
John Shakespeare steps down as Stratford Alderman, 6 September

John Ford baptized, 17April
Beginning of Kabuki Theatre in Japan

William Webbe, Discourse of English Poetrie
William Camden, Britannia
William Warner, Albion's England or Historical Map of the Same Island
Timothy Bright, A Treatise of Melancholy

El Greco, Burial of Count Orgaz

Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy

Guild of Funerary Violinists chartered with George Babcotte as sole member, 6 June

'Abbas the Great becomes Shah of Persia
Outbreak of insanity, called "Saint Vitus' Dance," caused by ergot poisoning in Germany
Grand Duke Francesco dies in Florence, succeeded by his brother Cardinal Ferdinando
Great Tea Gathering at Kitano Shrine, largest tea-ceremony event in history, October

Mary, Queen of Scots, executed at Fotheringhay, 8 February
John Foxe dies, 18 April
Sir Francis Drake attacks Cadiz, 19 April
Earl of Leicester relieved of command and recalled from Netherlands
Cope’s Bill and Book urges Presbyterian reform of Church of England
First American-born European, Virginia Dare, born in Roanoke Island Colony, now North Carolina, 18 August
Last suppy ship reaches Roanoke Island Colony
Inigo Jones begins construction of Cobham Hall, Kent
John Davis explores Davis Strait to Sanderson's Hope, 72º, 12’ N

Nathan Field born in Cripplegate Ward, baptised, 17 October
Henslowe and Cholmley sign deed of partnership, 10 January
Philip Henslowe opens the Rose Theatre - first record of perfomances there, 29 October
First English players tour in Germany
Joost van der Vondel born in Amsterdam
William Shakespeare arrives in London (?)

Monteverdi, First Book of Madrigals

Euphues, his Censure of Philautus, Robert Greene
Tamburlaine the Great, Christopher Marlowe
Alphonsus of Aragon
Dido, Queen of Carthage

Volksbuch von Dr. Faust published in Frankfurt
William Harrison, The Description of England
John Knox, Hystory of the Reformation in Scotland
Rederijckkunst, Dutch rhetoric manual
Second edition of Holinshed’s Chronicles issued, recalled, censored, and reissued
Richard Hakluyt, Notable History, Containing Four Voyages made by Certain French Captains Into Florida
Johan Spies, Historia von Doktor Johann Fausten, first published Faust legend
George Turbervile, Tragicall Tales Translated by Turbervile in Time of His Troubles out of Sundrie Italians

Shah Abbas I becomes Safavid Shah of Iran
Lope de Vega married by proxy in Madrid, 29 May, leaves to join the Armada
Jusepe Ribera, Spanish painter, born, 12 January
Henri de Navarre defeats French Royal forces, sends Montaigne as peace envoy to Paris
Henri de Lorraine, Duke of Guise, and his brother Louis, Cardinal of Guise, 
     assassinated at Blois on orders of Henri III, 23 December
Their brother, the Duke of Mayenne, becomes leader of The Catholic League
Vatican Library opens
Johann Heinrich Alsted, Encyclopedist, born,  Mittenaar, March (d. 1638)

Army of 4,000 musters at Tilbury, 26 July
Spanish Armada defeated by English under Howard, Hawkins and Drake, 31 July - 9 August
Elizabeth addresses troops at Tilbury, 8 August
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, dies, 4 September
Elizabeth gives thanks for victory over Armada at St. Paul’s, 24 November
English Guinea Company founded
Rights to trade on Guinea coast, Senegal to Gambia, granted to London company
Thomas Hobbes born
Martin Marprelate controversy begins

Richard Tarleton dies, 5 September

Paolo Veronese dies

John Lyly, Endymion, the Man in the Moon
T’ang Hsien-tsu, The Peonies Pavilion
Christopher Marlowe, Doctor Faustus

William Morgan’s Welsh Bible 
Robert Greene, Pandosta, or Dorastus and Fawnia
Robert Greene, Perimedes
Timothy Bright, An Arte of Shorte, Swifte, and Secrete Writing by Character
Montaigne,  third volume of Essais
English translation of Volksbuch von Dr. Faust published
Tycho Brahe, De mundi aetherei recentioribus phaenomenis
Fourteen plays by Juan de la Cueva published in Spain

Nicholas Yonge, Musica Transalpina, fifty-seven madrigals, two by William Byrd
William Byrd, Psalms, Sonets and Songs of Sadnes and Pietie

Catherine de’ Medici dies, 5 January
Henri III reconciled with Henri Bourbon-Navarre and take on League forces  30 April
Henri III and Henri of Navarre besiege Paris   30 July
Henri III fatally stabbed by Jacques Clément, proclaims Henri of Navarre his heir  1 August
Henri III of France dies , 2 August
Henri IV, King of Navarre, becomes King of France, founds Bourbon dynasty
Forks used for the first time at French court
Jews of Venice granted status of Venetian subjects
Jesuit Matteo Ricci sees the mummified body of Huineng at Hnhua Temple in northern Guandong and calls him Lusu (i.e. 六祖, "The Sixth Patriarch")

James VI of Scotland marries Anne of Denmark by proxy, 20 August
John Lyly made MP for Hindon
Last Corpus Christi play cycle performed at Newcastle
Martin Marprelate controversy
Drake attacks, but fails to capture, Lisbon
House of Commons appoints first Standing Committee for Privileges
The Reverend William Lee of Cambridge invents the stocking frame, first "knitting machine";
     denied Royal patent for his invention, he moves to Rouen, France
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, founded
Sir William Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer, dies

Frian Bacon and Friar Bungay, by Robert Greene (?)
The Spanish Tragedy, Thomas Kyd
The Jew of Malta, Christopher Marlowe
Mother Bombie

Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune
Richard Hakluyt, The Principall Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation
Robert Greene, Menaphon
Thomas Nashe, Anatomie of Absurdities
George Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie

Caravaggio, Bacchus

Thoinot Arbeau publishes Orchésographie, dance treatise with several tunes
William Byrd, Songes of Sundrie Natures

Catholic League declares Cardinal de Bourbon King Charles X of France, January
Leaue forces, under Mayenne, defeated by Henri IV at Ivry   14 March
“Millones” tax levied in Spain

Charles X dies, May
Henri IV lays seige to Paris
Pope Sixtus V dies, 27 August
Cardinal Giambattista Castagna becomes Pope Urban VII, 15 October
Pope Urban VII dies, 27 October
Cardinal Niccolò Sfondrato becomes Pope Gregory XIV
Coal mining begun in the Ruhr

First English paper mill begins production at Dartford
Sir Francis Walsingham dies, 6 April
Official wedding of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark in Christiana, 23 November

Edmund Spenser,  Books I - III of The Faerie Queene, Stationers Register: 1 December
Sir Philip Sidney, Arcadia
Love’s Metamorphosis
Three Lords and Three Ladies of London 
Christopher Marlowe, I and II Tamburlaine
Thomas Lodge, Rosalynde

El Greco, Saint Jerome
Simon Vouet, French painter, born, 9 January
Gerrit van Honthorst, Dutch painter, born, 4 November

Sussex’ and Queen’s Men tour together in Southampton, Gloucester, and Coventry
Italian Commedia dell’arte company "I Accesi" begins performing
Margaret Brayne and friends attempt to force James Burbage to pay judgement, 16 November

2&3 Henry VI performed (all Shakespeare dates based on E.K. Chambers’ earliest estimate)
A Looking Glass for London and England, Greene and Lodge (?)
Thomas of Woodstock

Pope Gregory XIV excommunicates Henri IV of France
Pope Gregory XIV bans betting on papal elections
Pope Gregory XIV dies
Cardinal Antonio Facchinetti becomes Pope Innocent IX, no record of what his odds were
Chartres capitulates to Henri IV after seige  10 April
Pope Innocent IX dies, 30 December
Saint John of the Cross dies
Guercino, Italian painter, born, 8 February
Vincenzo Galilei, Italian lutanist and composer, father of Galileo, dies
Boris Godunov, Regent of Russia, has Dmitri, son of Ivan the Terrible, assassinated
Sen no Rikyu, founder of the tea ceremony, commits hara--kiri at the command of his lord, Hideyoshi
Union of Torgas between Saxony and Palatinate, January to September

Queen Elizabeth founds Trinity College, Dublin
Robert Herrick born, 20 August
Lord Chancellor Sir Christopher Hatton dies, 20 November
Edward Coke named Recorder of London
English troops sent to support Protestants in Britanny
James VI of Scotland publishes His Majesty’s Poetical Exercises
Hacket’s treason
The loss of the "Revenge"
The colony at Roanoke Island, now North Carolina, found deserted
Proclamation against Jesuits and seminaries
Robert Herrick born in London, baptised 24 August

Guercino, Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, born
Le Valentin, French painter, born, 3 January

Plays produced:
Philip Henslowe’s Diary notes performance by Strange’s Men at the Rose, 19 February
The Destruction of Jerusalem performed at Coventry
Orlando Furioso, and James IV, Robert Greene (?)
The Woman in the Moon
William Shakespeare, 1 Henry VI

Plays Published:
John Lyly, Endymion, The Man in the Moon 
1 & 2 Troublesome Reign of King John

Sir John Harington’s translation of Orlando Furioso
Sir Philip Sidney, Astrophel and Stella
Robert Greene, Philomela
Robert Southwell, Marie Magdalens Funeral Teares, published by Gabriel Cawood
Edmund Spenser, Complaints
Giordano Bruno, De immenso et innumerabilis seu de universo et mundis
F. Bocchi, Le bellezze città di Fiorenza, guide book to Florence
François Viète, In Artem analyticam isagoge, on using letters for algebraic quantities
Henry Smith, A Preparative for Marriage
G. Clayton, The approved Order of Martial Discipline

Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini elected Pope Clement VIII
Duke of Parma dies
Peter Stuyvesant born, 8 September
Michel de Montaigne dies at his family chateau, 13 September
Portugese settlement at Mombasa founded
Juan de Fuca discovers British Columbia
Ruins of Pompei discovered
Galileo Galilei begins lecturing on mathematics at the University of Padua
Windmills first used in Holland to drive mechanical saws
Coffee first mentioned by a European writer
Johann Amos Comenius born in Moravia, d. 1670 in Amsterdam

Severe plague strikes London, 15,000 die
Thomas Cavendish dies
James Lancaster sails around Malay Peninsula
Witchcraft trials in Scotland
The Great Carrack captured
Thomas, Earl of Arundel, born, 7 July
Robert Southwell arrested
Scottish Parliament strengthens Presbyterian reforms with "the Golden Acts"
Queen Elizabeth makes her second, and final, visit to Oxford University
John Shakespeare presented as recusant, 25 December

Strange’s Men, with Edward Alleyn, begin performances at The Rose, 19 February
Phillip Henslowe starts keeping his diary in account book inherited from his brother
Margaret Brayne, widow of Burbage's partner, dies
Feltworkers' riot in Southwark leads to closure of theatres, mid-June
Edward Alleyn marries Joan Woodward, Henslowe’s step-daughter, 22 October
Rose Theatre reopens, 29 December
John Marston matriculates at Brasenose College, Oxford, 4 February
John Marston admitted to Middle Temple, 2 August
Robert Greene dies, 2 or 3 September

Tintoretto, The Last Supper
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio arrives in Rome from Milan

Plays produced:
The Four Prentices of London, Thomas Heywood (?)
Dr. Faustus and Edward II, Christopher Marlowe
William Shakespeare, Richard III
William Shakespeare, The Comedy of Errors
Midas, John Lyly

Plays Published:
Thomas Nashe, Sommer’s Last Will and Testament
Constable, Diana
Daniel, Delia
Chettle, Kind Heart’s Dream
Arden of Feversham
Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy

Thomas Nashe, Piers Penniless
Robert Grene, The Cony-catching pamphlets and A Quip for an Upstart Courtier
Chettle publishes Grene’s Groatsworth of Wit
Revised edition of The Vulgate
Robert Hues, Tractatus de Globis, identifies Alpha Centauri 

Monteverdi, Third Book of Madrigals
Lodovico Zacconi, Prattica de musica

War begins between Ottomans and Holy Roman Empire
Battle of Sisak.  Hassan Pasha and Slovenes defeat Ottoman army, halt Turkish advance, 22 June
Henri IV renounces Calvinism in the basilica of Saint-Denis  25 July

Sant’ Ambrogio Bank founded in Milan
Amsterdam's Keisergracht laid out

Izaak Walton born in Stafford, 9 August
George Herbert born, 3 April
John Greenwood and Henry Barrow, Protestant separatists, executed
John Norden engraves a map of London, including South Bank theatres
Thomas Nashe, in a letter, employs the term "helter-skelter"

Theatres closed because of plague, 1 February
Christopher Marlowe charged with heresy, arrest warrant issued 18 May
Christopher Marlowe stabbed in tavern fight in Deptford, dies 30 May
Rose Theatre reopens, 27 December
Edward Alleyn and Sussex’s Men begin playing at the Rose, 27 December

Caravaggio, Boy with a Basket of Fruit
El Greco, The Crucifixion and The Resurrection
Andrea Vicentino, The Arrival in Venice of Henry III, King of France
Guiseppe Archimbaldo dies
Nicholas Poussin born
Georges de La Tour born, 19 March
Jacob Jordaens, Flemish painter, born 19 May
Claude Vignon, French painter, born, 19 May
Artemisia Gentileschi born in Rome, 8 July

Plays Produced:
Massacre of Paris, Marlowe
The Taming of the Shrew, Shakespeare
Titus Andronicus, Shakespeare
Edward I, George Peele

Richard Hooker’s Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Politie
Venus and Adonis entered in Stationers’ Register, 18 April
Venus and Adonis, Q1, published by Richard Fieldsole extant copy now in Bodleian
Robert Henryson, The Testament of Cresseid
Kralitz, or "Brothers''," Bible completes printing, for United Brethren of Moravia
Chen Ta-wei, Abacus Computation, first Chinese abacus instruction book

Plays Published:
Chapman, Shadow of Night
The Phoenix Nest
Christopher Marlowe, Edward II

Henri IV crowned at Chartres because Reims was still loyal to The League   27 February 
Henri IV enters Paris   22 March
Edict of St. Germaine-en-Laye grants Huguenots freedom of worship
Gerard Mercator dies, 2 December
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina dies in Rome, 2 February
Giordano Bruno arrested for advocating Copernican astronomical theory

Ralph Fitch returns to London from overland journey to India and Ceylon
Henry Frederick, future Prince of Wales, born, 19 February
Earl of Derby dies, 16 April
Robert Southwell dies, 21 February
The Rape of Lucrece entered in Stationers’ Register, 9 May
Sir Martin Frobisher dies during recapture of Brest from Spanish, 7 November
James Lancaster, working for England, breaks Portugese trade monopoly in India

Thomas Kyd dies, December
Ben Jonson marries Anne Lewis, 14 November
The Swan theatre built (?)
Edward Alleyn purchases The Bear Garden in Bankside
James Shirley born
Privy Council closes London theatres for plague, 3 February
Theatres reopen, April
Lord Chamberlain’s Men established
Queen’s Men and Sussex’s Men play at the Rose Theatre, April and May
Edward Alleyn reassembles The Admiral’s Men at The Rose, opens season 15 June
Playing restrained in Southwark, but allowed further from city
Chamberlain’s and Admiral’s Men perform together at Newington Butts, June
Court payment to Chamberlain's Men first records Shakespeare as member of company, 26 December

Giovanni da Bologna, Equestrian statue of Grand Duke Cosimo I, Piazza della Signoria, Florence
Giovanni da Bologna, statue of Fernando de’ Medici
Jacopo Tintoretto, Paradise
Caravaggio, The Musical Party
Jean Cousin dies
Tintoretto dies

Plays produced:
John a Kent and John a Cumber
William Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona
William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet
William Shakespeare, Love’s Labours Lost
Titus Andronicus performed at Rose Theatre by Sussex’s Men with Edward Alleyn, 24 January
Pre-Shakespearean Hamlet performed by Chamberlain's Men at Newington Butts, 9 June
The Comedy of Errors performed at Gray’s Inn, 28 December
Jacopo Peri composes Dafne, "dramma per musica," first opera

Plays published:
Titus Andronicus entered in Stationers Register, 6 February
Titus Andronicus, Q1, by Danter for White and Millington
The Taming of a Shrew, Q1, by Short for Burby
First Part of the Contention of … York and Lancaster, Q1, by Creede for Harrison
Orlando Furioso
A Knack to Know a Knave
A Looking Glass for London and England
Pedlar’s Prophecy
The Famous Victories of Henry V
James IV
Friar Bacon and Frian Bungay
Ling Leir
David and Bathsabe
The Jew of Malta
The Wounds of Civil War
The Cobbler’s Prophecy
The Four Prentices of London
The True Tragedy of Richard III
Fair Em
The Battle of Alcazar
Dido, Queen of Carthage

Richard Hooker, Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, Volumes 1 – 4
Piere Matthieu, Histoire des derniers troubles de France
Thomas Heywood, Oenone and Paris, first published work
The Rape of Lucrece, Q1, published by Richard Field
Venus and Adonis, Q2, published by Richard Field
Willobie his Avisa
Thomas Nashe,  Jack Wilton and The Unfortunate Traveller 
Drayton, Idea’s Mirror 
John Norden, Descripionn of Middlesex
"Incunabla Bible," misdated 1495

Pasquale Cicogna, Doge of Venice, Dies
Henri IV declares war on Philip of Spain to force end of support for League holdouts in Britainy, January
Pope Clement VIII removes ban of excommunication from Henri IV, acknowledges him as king, 17 September
Spanish land in Cornwall, burn Penzance and Mousehole
Dutch begin to colonize East Indies
Peasant revolt in Upper Austria
Warsaw becomes capitol of Poland

Poet Robert Southwell hanged at Tyburn for becoming a Jesuit priest, 21 February
Philip Neri dies
Drake and Hawkins leave on their last voyage to The Spanish Main
Sir John Hawkins dies in Porto Bello, 11 November
Sir Walter Raleigh’s first expedition to Guiana, explores 300 miles up Orinoco River
English army abandons bows and arrows
Butter riots in Southwark market
First appearance of heels on shoes

Francis Langley opens Swan Theatre
Philip Henslowe redecorates Rose Theatre
William Shakespeare listed as member of Chamberlain’s Men, 15 March
Torquato Tasso dies
Thomas May born, Mayfield, Sussex

Annibale Carracci, Venus and Adonis

Plays produced:
William Shakespeare, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, 2 May, Southampton House
William Shakespeare, Richard II

Plays published:
George a Greene
The Old Wive’s Tale
Woman in the Moon
A Knack to Know an Honest Man
Edward III
William Shakespeare, The True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York (3HVI), Q1, by Short for Millington

Books published:
Robert Southwell, St. Peter’s Complaint
Robert Southwell, The Triumphs over Death
Edmund Spenser, Amoretti
Sir Philip Sidney, An Apologia for Poetrie
Andrew Maunsell, The Catalougue of English Printed Books
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O1
Mercator, Atlas
Samuel Daniel, The First Fowre Bookes of the civile wars
Bien-seance de la Conversation entre les Hommes,
compiled by Pensionnaires of the Jesuit College of La Fleche, basis of Washington's "Rules of Civility"

Decrees of Folembray.   War of Catholic League ends in France
Imperial army defeated by Turks at Keresztes, northern Hungary
Spanish capture Calais
René Descartes born, 31 March
Niccolò Amati, Italian violin maker, born, 3 December
Philip III offers 1,000 crowns and Dutch offer 10,000 florins for solution to problem of longitude

English begin "pacification" of Ireland
Tomatoes introduced to England
Sir Francis Drake dies of dysentary off coast of Panama, 28 January
Sir Robert Cecil appointed Secretary of State, 5 July
Cadiz expedition
Gresham College, London, founded
Privy Council raises "Ship Money" from coastal regions for provision of the Navy
"Dearth" at harvest sparks riots against enclosure in the Midlands
Sir John Harrington introduces first water closets, installed at Royal Palace of Richmond
Willem Barents discovers Spitzbergen and Barents Sea
Willem Barents and Jacob van Heemskerck discover Bear Island, reach NW tip of Spitsbergen, 79º, 49’ N
Hamnet Shakespeare buried, 11 August

Thomas Heywood writing for Henslowe
George Peele dies, 9 November
George Buc given reversion of Mastership of the Revels
Johannes de Wit visits London and attends the Swan theatre, makes a sketch of what he sees
"Second" Blackfriars Theater completed

Edmund Spenser, Faerie Queen, Books IV-VI
Sir John Harington’s Metamorphosis of Ajax
Lodge’s Wit’s Misery
Drayton’s Mortimeriados
Sir John Davies’ Orchestra
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O2, by Field for Harrison?
Johannes Kepler, De admirabili proportione coelestrium orbium
Ludolph van Cuelen, Van den Circkel, calculates "pi" to twenty places
G. D. Rheticus, Trigonometric Tables, published posthumously
John Napier, "A plaine discovery . . . ," first tables of "logarithms"
Richard Johnson,  The Most Famous Historie of the Seven Champions of Christendome

Plays produced:
Blind Beggar of Alexandria
William Shakespeare, King John
William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice

Plays published:
William Shakespeare, Taming of the Shrew, Q2, by Short for Burby

Caravaggio, Basket of Fruit
Jan van Goyen, Dutch painter, born, 13 January
Pietro da Cortona, Italian architect and painter, born, 1 November

Twenty six Christians, including Saint Peter Baptist, tortured and martyred in Nagasaki, Japan, 6 February
Second Spanish Armada defeated
Paris panics at news of Spanish conquest of Amiens,  11-12 March
Philip II of Spain opens peace talks with Henri IV of France
Spanish forces surrender Amiens to Henri IV’s forces,  19 September
Re-Catholicization of Upper Austria effected by force
William V, Duke of Bavaria, abdicates in favor of his son, Maximilian I, and retires to a monastery
Aldus Manutius the Younger dies, Venice's "Aldine Press" ceases publishing
Dutch found Batavia, Java
Russian Czar Boris Godunov decrees Edict of 1597 enforcing rights of masters over serfs
Hernando de Herrara, Spanish poet, dies

Lord Pembroke’s Men contract for use of the Swan Theatre, February
English Parliament prescribes sentences of transportation to colonies for convicts
Parliament enacts sweeping Poor Law Act
Government voids unpopular monopolies, 28 November
English merchants expelled from Holy Roman Empire 
    in retaliation for treatment of Hanseatic League in London
Willem Barents dies
Essex and Raleigh on "Islands Voyage"
Those disobeying "Books of Orders" made liable to Star Chamber proceedings
"Old Poor Law" codifies acts for relief of poverty
Shakespeare purchases New Place in Stratford-on-Avon, 4 May

James Burbage dies, February
Lease on land at The Theatre expires, 13 April
Henry Carey, 1st Lord Hundson, Lord Chamberlain, dies, 23 July
Ben Jonson begins writing for Henslowe, July
Isle of Dogs, by Jonson, et al, at The Swan, results in Ben Jonson’s imprisonment
Pembroke’s Men restrained because of The Isle of Dogs, 28 July

El Greco, Saint Martin and the Begger
Pieter Saenredam, Dutch painter, born, 9 June

Gabrieli, in his Sacrae Symphonie, pioneers "symphonic" composition
Orazio Vecchi and Giulio Cesare Croce, L'Amfiparnaso published in Venice, Madrigal commedia dell'arte
A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke, by Thomas Morley, published

Plays produced:
Ottari Rinuccini's opera seria, Daphne, with music by Jacopo Peri, produced in Florence
William Shakespeare, 1 & 2 Henry IV

George Chapman, An Humorous Day’s Mirth, a "City Comedy"
The Case is Altered

Plays Published:
William Shakespeare, Richard III entered in Stationers’ Register, 20 October
William Shakespeare, Richard II, Q1, by Simmes for Wise
William Shakespeare, Richard III, Q1, by Simmes for Wise
William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Q1, by Danter

Francis Bacon, Essays, first edition
Hall, Virgidemiarum
Deloney’s Jack of Newbury and Gentle Craft
John Davies, Orchestrum
James VI of Scotland, Demonologie
Peter Lowe, The Whole Art of Chirurgery
John Dowland, First Booke of Songes or Ayres
Thomas Morley, A Plain and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musick

Fyodor I of Russia dies, Boris Godunov elected Czar by national assembly
Duke Alfonso II of Ferrara dies, Pope Clement VIII seizes duchy
Treaty of Ponts de Cé ends civil war in France
Peace of Verins between Spain and France brokered by Pope and Queen Elizabeth, May,   Philip II of Spain renounces claim to French crown, 2 May
Henri IV of France reorganizes University of Paris
King Phillip II of Spain dies, 13 September, succeeded by Philip III
Edict of Nantes grants equal rights to French Protestants and Catholics, 13 April
Hideyoshi dies, Ieyasu Tokugawa restores shogunate in Japan
First Dutch settlers on island of Mauritius

Lord Burghley dies, 4 August
Tyrone defeats the English in Ireland, 14 August
Edmund Spenser appointed Sheriff of Cork, 30 September
Kilcolman Castle burnt in Tyrone's rebellion, Spenser flees 
Sir Thomas Bodley offers to restore Duke Humphrey’s library at Oxford

George Peele dies
Ben Jonson kills Gabriel Spencer in a duel in Hoxton Fields, indicted 22 September
Ben Jonson tried for murder, convicted, and claims benefit of clergy to escape execution, October
"The War of the Theatres," Nashe vs. Jonson
"The Theatre" dismantled, December, timbers removed to South Bank for reassembly

Jan Breughel, Adoration of the Kings
El Greco, Cardinal Don Fernando Niño de Guevara
Gianlorenzo Bernini born, 7 December
Francisco de Zurbarán born
François Mansart, French architect, born, 23 January

Thomas Morley granted royal patent for publication of music and music paper

William Shakespeare, The Rape of Lucrece, O2, by Short for Harrison
Christopher Marlowe, Hero and Leander, completed by George Chapman
Chapman’s Homer, Iliad books 1 & 2, 7 – 11
Marston’s Scourge of Villainy
John Stow, Survey of London, first edition
James VI, Trew Law of Free Monarchies, asserts "Divine Right"
Francis Meres’ Palladis Tamia entered in Stationers’ Register 15 September
John Florio, A World of Words, English – Italian dictionary
John Manwood, Treatise on the Laws of the Forest
Tycho Brahe, Astronomicae Instauratae Mechanica, on his discoveries and instruments
John Norden, Speculum Britaniae, part II, Description of Hertfordshire
Robert Cleaver, A Godly Form of Household Government

Plays Published:
T’ang Hsien-tzu, The Peony Pavilion
1 Henry IV entered in Stationers’ Register, 25 February, Q1 published by Short for Wise
William Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice entered in Stationers’ Register, 22 July 
William Shakespeare, Love’s Labours Lost, by White for Burby
William Shakespeare, Richard II, Q2 and Q3, by Simmes for Wise
William Shakespeare, Richard III, Q2, by Creede for Wise

Plays produced:
Ben Jonson, Every Man in His Humour
Munday & Chettle, The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon, 
William Haughton, Englishmen for my Money
Two Angry Women of Abingdon
Pilgrimage to Parnassus
William Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing
Peri’s Dafne staged in Florence, first "opera"
Spanish settlers near El Paso perform comedia by Marcos Farfan de los Godos, 
     the first recorded dramatic production in North America

Gabrielle d’Estrées, mistress to Henri IV, dies in childbirth,  10 April
Henri IV of France obtains divorce from Margaret of Valois
Duke of Sully reforms French economic policies
First "Chamber of Commerce" founded in Marseilles
Austrian Archduke Albert marries Spanish Infante Isabelle, daughter of Phillip II
Phillip II debases Spanish coinage

Plague outbreak in Spain
Count Enno III ascends to leadership of East Frisia

Beatrice Cenci, her brother and their step-mother executed in Rome for murder of family patriarch
King Nandabayin of Burma, told that Venice is a republic and has no king, suffers fatal fit of laughter

Edmund Spenser dies in Westminster, 16 January
Satires condemned and burned by order of the Bishop of London, June
William Gilbert becomes president of Royal College of Physicians
Oliver Cromwell born, 25 April
Essex campaigns in Ireland, signs truce with Lord Tyrone
Essex returns to London in disgrace, 28 September
Earl of Southampton imprisoned in The Clink
English East Indies Company founded
John Shakespeare applies for the Arden arms to be quartered on his own

Jacopo Bassano, "The Last Supper," first "last supper" with a fork on the table!
Diego Velasquez born, 6 June
Anthony van Dyck born, 22 March
Francesco Borromini, Italian architect, born in Lombardy, 25 September

Chamberlain’s Men shareholders sign lease to build Globe Theatre, 14 February
London theatres limited to two, and performances to two per week, 22 June
The Globe Theatre opens, possibly with a performance of Henry V
The Paul’s Boys reopen their theater
Newington Butts demolished (?)
Edward Alleyn acquires lease on plot in Golding Lane, for Fortune Theatre, 24 December

Plays Produced:
William Shakespeare, As You Like It
William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar performed at the Globe, 21 September
William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night
Thomas Dekker, The Shoemakers Holiday, and Old Fortunatus staged at The Rose by The Admiral's Men
Every Man out of His Humour, Ben Jonson, Chamberlain’s Men
Histriomastix, John Marston
Antonio and Mellida, John Marston
Antonio’s Revenge, John Marston
1 Sir John Oldcastle
1 Return from Parnassus, student production

Plays Published:
William Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV, Q2, by Creede for Wise
William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Q2, by Creede for Burby
Thomas Heywood, 1 & 2 Edward IV
Warning for Fair Women
George Chapman, An Humourous Day’s Mirth
Porter, Two Angry Women of Abingdon
Robert Greene, Alphonsus of Aragon

Edward Wright, Certaine Errors of Navigation, explains Mercator projection mathematically
John Davies, Noscae Theapsum
James VI of Scotland, Basilicon Doron
Treatise of Human Learning
The Passionate Pilgrim, O1 and O2, by Judson for Jaggard
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O3, by Short for Leake
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O4, by Bradock for Leake
Mateo Alemán, Guzmán de Alfarache, picaresque novel 
"Wuyck's Bible," authorized Polish translation by Jacob Wuyck

Ieyasu consolidates power in Japan, moves capitol from Kyoto to Edo (Tokyo)
Huaynaputina erupts in Peru, largest American volcanic eruption in recorded history, February 19
Henri IV marries Marie de Medici,  October
Dutch East India Company founded
Dutch optician Hans Lippeshey invents telescope
Amsterdam Bank founded
Giordano Bruno burnt as a heretic in Rome, 17 February
Vincent de Paul ordained a priest

Approximate Population Figures (in millions):
     England and Ireland: 5.5
     France: 16
     Germany: 14.5
     Poland: 11
     Spain & Hapsburg dominions: 5.5
     Holland: 3

Population of greater London: approximately 200,000
Population of Bristol and Norwich, likely second and third largest English cities: approximately 10,000

Earl of Essex placed under house arrest, 5 June, later tried and stripped of offices at court
John, Earl of Gowry, and Alexander Ruthven slain at Perth by John Ramsey, 
    foiling alleged extreme protestant plot against James VI, 5 August
Charles I of England, son of James VI of Scotland, born, 19 November
Richard Hooker dies
English East India Company founded, capitalized at £70,000
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, tried for treason
Scottish College founded in Rome
Exorcism controversy
Tulips first cultivated in England, from bulbs imported from Vienna.

Robert Wilson dies, buried 20 November
Burbages rent Blackfriars to Henry Evans for £40 per year
The Children of the Chapel begin to play at Blackfriars
Nathan Field begins acting with Children of the Queen’s Revels
Fortune Theatre built by Edward Alleyn and Philip Henslowe, who transfer their interests there
Nottingham’s Men leave Rose Theatre
Earl of Worcester’s Men begin residency at The Rose
Pedro Calderón de la Barca born
José Acosta born, 16 February

Florence Camarata stages first "opera," Giacomo Peri’s Euridice, at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, 6 October
Thomas Morley, First Book of Ayres

Caravaggio, Doubting Thomas

Plays produced:
William Shakespeare, Hamlet
Thomas Dekker, Patient Grissell
William Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor
Chettle and Day, The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green 
Giulio Caccini, Euridice, opera

Books Published:
England’s Helicon, influential poetry anthology
William Gilbert, De Magnete, on magnetism and electricity, reveals that the earth has a magnetic field
Second edition of Richard Hakluyt's Principal Navigations (much expanded)
William Cornwallis, Essays

Plays published
William Shakespeare, Henry V, Q1,("bad" quarto), by Creede for Millington
William Shakespeare, Much Ado about Nothing, by Simmes for Wise and Aspley
William Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV, by Simmes for Wise and Aspley
William Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI, Q2, by Simmes for Millington
William Shakespeare, 3 Henry VI, Q2, by White for Millington
William Shakespeare, Midsummer Night’s Dream entered in Stationers’ Register, 8 October
William Shakespeare, Midsummer Night’s Dream, Q1, by Allde for Bradock for Fisher
William Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, Q1, by Roberts for Heyes
William Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing, by Simmes for Wise and Aspley
William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, Q2, by Roberts for Heyes
1 & 2 Sir John Oldcastle
Jack Drum’s Entertainment
Thomas Dekker, Old Fortunatus
Thomas Dekker, Patient Grissell
Ben Jonson, Every Man out of his Humour
A Larum for London
Maid’s Metamorphosis

Dutch seize Portugese holdings in India
Archduke Albert of Austria besieges Ostend
Dauphin, later Louis XIII,  born to King and Queen of France,  27 September
Nicholaus Crell, ousted Calvinist Chancellor of Saxony, executed in Dresden, 9 October
Treaty of Lyons between Savoy and France, 17 January
University of Parma founded
Tycho Brahe dies, Johannes Kepler becomes astrologer to Emperor Rudolf II
Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci admitted to Peking
German brothels closed to prevent spread of venereal disease
St. John Eudes born
Luis de Molina, Jesuit defender of free will, dies
Production of tapestries begun at Gobelin factory in Faubourg St. Marcel, Paris

Queen Elizabeth delivers "Golden Speech" to Parliament, surveys her achievements, 30 November
Richard II performed at The Globe on commission of Essex conspirators, 7 February
Essex and followers attempt coup, 8 February
Augustine Philips, sharer in Lord Chamberlain’s Men, deposed by Privy Council re: Richard II, 18 Feb.
Lord Chamberlain’s Men perform at Court, Shrove Tuesday, 24 February
Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, executed, 25 February
Earl of Southampton jailed
Parliament approves new Poor Law
Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, dies
Mary Fitton gives birth to stillborn illegitimate son, acknowledged by 3rd Earl of Pembroke, February
3rd Earl of Pembroke disgraced, imprisoned, and exiled for remainder of Elizabeth's reign
Spanish invade Ireland, 3,500 troops land at Kinsale
Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Spanish allies defeated at Kinsale
Parliamentary agitation against monopolies 
William Gilbert appointed personal physician to the Queen
Thomas Nashe dies
James Lancaster leads first English East India voyage from Torbay to Sumatra

John Shakespeare buried in Stratford, 8 September

Ben Jonson paid by Henslowe for additions to Thomas Kyd’s Spanish Tragedy

Plays produced:
Thomas Dekker, Blurt Master Constable
Ben Jonson, The Poetaster 

William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida

Thomas Wright, The Passions of the Mind
Holland’s translation of Pliny
Love’s Martyr, including The Phoenix and the Turtle, by Richard Field for Blount
Bento Teixeira Pinto, Prosopopeya, first Brazillian epic
John Wheeler, A Treatise of Commerce
William Parry's account of Anthony Sherley's expedition to Persia.  First description of coffee.

Plays Published:
Love’s Metamorphosis
1 & 2 Robert, Earl of Huntingdon
Thomas Dekker, Shoemaker’s Holiday
Christopher Marlowe, Dr. Faustus
Ben Jonson, Cynthia’s Revels
Ben Jonson, Every Man in his Humour (1st version)

Caravaggio, Conversion of Saint Paul

Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa, sets Madrigals to lyrics of Torquato Tasso
Thomas Morley composes Triumphs of Oriana

Abdulfazl Allami, Sufi historian, dies
Emperor Rudolf II suppresses meetings of Moravian Brethren
Paris Charité founded
Biron’s conspiracy
Ambrosian Library founded in Milan
Dutch East India Company founded
Chambers of assurance for traders established in Amsterdam

Spanish in Ireland surrender, January
Bodleian Library opens in Oxford
Elizabeth refuses to officially incorporate "Society of Antiquaries"
Shakespeare purchases 107 acres from William Combe of Stratford, 1 May

Francis Langley, owner of The Swan, dies, theater sold to Hugh Browker

Caravaggio, The Taking of Christ
Caravaggio, Victorious Cupid
Agostino Carracci dies
Philippe de Champaigne, French painter, born, 26 May
Michelangelo Cerquozzi, Italian Painter, born, 2 February

Plays produced:
The Gentleman Usher, by George Chapman
William Shakespeare, All’s Well That Ends Well
Family of Love
Sir Thomas Wyatt

Plays published:
William Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, Q1, entered in Stationers’ Register, 18 January, published by Creede for Johnson
William Shakespeare, Henry V, Q2, "bad quarto," by Creede for Pavier
William Shakespeare, Richard III, Q3, by Creede for Wise
William Shakespeare, 2 Henry IV entered in Stationers’ Register, 23 August ?
John Marston, Antonio and Mellida
John Marston, Antonio’s Revenge
Blurt Master Constable
Thomas Lord Cromwell

John Stow, Survey of London, second, revised, edition
Thomas Campion, Observations in the Art of English Poesy
Deloney’s Thomas of Reading
Lope de Vega, La hermosura de angèlica, an epic poem
Sir David Lindsay, Ane Pleasant Satyre of the Three Estaitis
Hans Leo Hassler, Lustgarten, collection of German lieder
Thomas Blondeville, Theoriques of the Planets
Tycho Brahe, Antronomia Instauratae progymnasmata, edited by Kepler
Richard Carew, Survey of Cornwall
John Willis, The Art of Stenographie
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O5, by Braddock for Leake
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O6, by Raworth for Leake
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O7, by Lownes for Leake
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O8, for Leake

Emilio del Cavalieri, oratorio composer of Florentine camarata, dies

Tokugawa clan obtains shogunate in Japan
Samuel de Champlain begins six year expedition exploring the interior of Canada
Henri IV recalls Jesuits to France
Accademia dei Lincei founded in Rome
Fabricio de Acquapendente discovers the valves in human veins

Queen Elizabeth reported ill, 28 February
Queen Elizabeth dies, 24 March, between 2 and 3 a.m.
Queen Elizabeth buried at Westminster, 28 April
Tyrone surrenders at Mellifont, ending war in Ireland
Amnesty granted in Ireland
Sir Walter Raleigh imprisoned and tried for treason
Earl of Southampton freed, May 17
Plague in London rises to rate of 1400 per week, closing theaters, May
William Gilbert, scientist and royal physician, dies of plague

Peter Paul Rubens paints The Duke of Lerma

Shakerley Marmion born Aynho, Northamptonshire, January
"King’s Men" chartered
Philip Henslowe ends his "Diary"

Thomas Morley, composer, dies

Plays produced:
Ben Jonson’s Sejanus staged by King’s Men with Shakespeare in cast
Ben Jonson’s The Entertainment at Althorp, 25 June, at home of Sir Robert Spencer
A Woman Killed with Kindness, Thomas Heywood
The Dutch Courtesan, John Marston
The Phoenix
Female attendent of Izumo shrine leads performance on dry riverbed, "Kabuki" born

Thomas Dekker, The Wonderful Year
John Florio’s translation of Michael de Montaigne’s Essaies
John Davies, Microcosmos
Samuel Daniel, Defence of Rhyme
James I, Daemonology (London edition)
Jean-Baptiste Besard, Thesaurus harmonicus, collection of lute music
Monteverdi, Fourth Book of Madrigals
Thomas Robinson, School of Musicke
Johannes Althusias, Politica methodice digesta, a grammar of politics
Thomas Craig, Jus feudale
Richard Knolles, General History of the Turks
Francisco Gómez de Quevedo, La vida de buscón, picaresque novel

Plays Published:
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Q1, "bad quarto," by Simmes for Ling and Trundell

Boris Godunov defeats "False Dimitri," consolidates rule in Moscow 
Arjun, 5th guru of the Sikhs, compiles The Adi Granth, Sikh holy scripture
Spanish forces, under Ambroglio de Spinola, capture Ostend after long siege

Coronation of King James I 
Somerset House Conference results in Treaty of London, ends war with Spain
English commercial treaty with France
James I imposes duty of 6s 10p on every pound of imported tobacco to curb smoking
Oxford and Cambridge University granted parliamentary representation; withdrawn in 1948
English East India Company sends voyages to Java, the Moluccas and Agra
Richard Bancroft, Bishop of London, elected Archbishop of Canterbury
Hampton Court Conference considers reform of English Church
Company of Musicians formed in London
James I grants John Stow a "Patent of Beggary" (i.e. license to beg) in lieu of pension, 8 March

Last record of Corpus Christi play being performed at Kendal
Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset, co-author of Gorbuduc, dies 19 April 
Syndicate formed to manage Children of the Queen’s Revels at Blackfriars
Jasper Mayne born, Hatherleigh, Devon, baptized 23 November
William Shakespeare lends Philip Rogers £2

Caravaggio, The Deposition

Plays produced:
William Shakespeare, Othello performed at court, 1 November
William Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor performed at court, 4 November
William Shakespeare, Measure for Measure
Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones, The Masque of Blackness at court
Bussy D’Ambois, by George Chapman
The Honest Whore, Part I, by Dekker and Middleton 
The Malcontent, John Marston, Blackfriars Boys
The Dutch Courtesan
All Fools
Wise Woman of Hogsdon
Monsieur D’Olive
Law Tricks
Westward Hoe
Jonson’s The Entertainment at Highgate performed, 1 May at Sir Wm. Cornwallis’ home

Plays published:
Marston, The Malcontent
1 Honest Whore
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Q2, by Roberts for Ling
William Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV, Q3, by Simmes for Law
Lope de Vega, Comedias, twenty-five volumes

Robert Cawdrey, A Table Alphabetical, first English dictionary, defining 3000 words
Jacques August de Thou, Historiae sui temporis, first of 11 volumes
Karel van Mander, Het Schilderboek, a history of art
Negri, Inventioni di balli, on dance technique
Johannes Kepler, Optics
James I, Counterblast to Tobacco
Orlando de Lasso, Magnum opus musicum, 516 motets published posthumously
Karel van Mander, Schilder-Boeck (The Book of Painters)

John Dowland, Lachrimae, or Seaven Teares Figured in Seaven Passionate Pavans

Pope Clement VIII dies, 5 March
Alessandro de’ Medici elected Pope Leo XI, April
Pope Leo XI dies
Camillo Borghese elected Pope Paul V
Spinola takes command of Spain’s Army of Flanders

Dutch Nieuwe Tijdinghen published, distributed in Antwerp and Venice, first "newspaper"
Boris Godunov dies, his son Fyodor II is assassinated, "False Dimitri" crowned Czar
Biblioteca Anglica founded in Rome by Angelo Rosca, first public library
Santa Fé, New Mexico founded

English claim Barbados
Butchers’ and Shipwrights’ Companies incorporated in London
Parliament farms customs revenue to London consortium
Edmund Waller born, 3 March
John Stow dies, 6 April, buried 8 April in church of St. Andrew's Undershaft
Thomas Browne born, 19 October
Gunpowder plot discovered, 5 November
Richard Field elected Warden of The Stationers Company

Orazio Vecchi, Italian composer, dies
Giacomo Carissimi, Italian composer, born

Ben Jonson appointed to write masques for the court
Cervantes and his family arrested in Vallodolid for complicity in murder, 27 June, later cleared
Thomas Randolph born, Newnham-cum-Badby, Northamptonshire, 15 June
Francis Beaumont meets John Fletcher; their first play, The Woman’s Prize, staged
Lease expires on Rose theater and it is probably torn down. 
Augustine Phillips, King’s Men actor, dies; will, probated 4 May, mentions Shakespeare
First permanent German theatre constructed in Cassel
Thomas Nabbes born, Worcesterchire
Thomas Randolph born at Houghton, Northamptonshire, 15 June

Plays produced:
William Shakespeare, King Lear
Westward Ho!, by Dekker and Webster
Eastward Ho!, Chapman, Marston, Jonson
Volpone, Ben Jonson
Dekker, The Whore of Babylon (?)
If You Know Not Me You Know No Body, Thomas Heywood
The Fawn
Dekker and Webster, Northward Hoe
Thomas Middleton, A Trick to Catch the Old One

Sir Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning
Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote, Part I
Michael Drayton, Poems
Justus Lipsius, Monita et exemplá politica
John Dowland, Lachrymai, or Seaven Teares in Seaven Passionate Pavans
Moneverdi, Fifth Book of Madrigals
Gaspard Bauhim, Theatrum anatomicum, modern anatomy
Robert Dallington, A Method for Travell, Shewed by Taking the view of France As it stoode
   in the yeare of our Lord 1598

Plays Published:
Ben Jonson, Sejanus
Fair Maid of Bristow
When You See Me, You Know Me
The Dutch Courtesan
Thomas Heywood, 1 If You Know Not Me You Know Nobody
Chapman, Jonson, and Marston, Eastward Hoe
All Fools
London Prodigal
1 Jeronimo
William Shakespeare, Richard III, Q4, by Creede for Law

Dutch discover Australia, March
Italians discover secret of chocolate, breaking Spain’s secretive monopoly
"False Dimitri" assassinated by the boyar Vasili Shuisky who is then elected Czar

Guy Fawkes executed, 31 January
Jesuit conspirator Henry Garnet tried 28 March, "equivocates" at trial, executed 3 May
James I proclaims national flag
Edmund Waller born, Coleshill, Buckinghamshire, 3 March
Christian IV of Denmark, Queen Anne's brother, visits England, 17 July
Virginia Company granted charter in London
120 English colonists depart for Jamestown, 19 December
Parliament debates, but does not approve, Act of Union between England and Scotland
Society of Apothecaries and Grocers founded in London
Fruiterers’ Company founded in London
New River Company chartered in Longon
Warrant issued for the arrest of George Babcotte, pioneer funerary violinist, 22 Nov

Ben Jonson cited for recusancy, April
The Red Bull opens (?)
Last mention of Rose Theatre in sewer records, 25 April, "late playhouse in Maid lane."
Pierre Corneille born in Rouen, France, 6 June
Thomas Middleton gives creditor The Viper and Her Brood in payment of a debt, 7 May
William Davenant born; baptised 3 March
John Lyly dies, buried 30 November at St. Bartholomew the Less
Le Théatre de Neptune en La Nouvelle-France, Marc Lescarbot, produced at Port Royal, Acadia, Canada. 
       First French play in the Western Hemisphere
First open-air opera performance in Rome

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn born in Leyden, 15 July
Caravaggio, accused of murder, flees Rome

Plays performed:
William Shakespeare, King Lear performed at court for King James, 26 December
William Shakespeare, Macbeth ( dated 1605 by Chambers )
William Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra
Jonson’s The Entertainment of the Two Kings at Theobald’s, for James and Christian IV
Thomas Dekker, The Whore of Babylon
Thomas Middleton, The Revengers Tragedy
The Woman Hater
The Isle of Gulls
Thomas Heywood, The Rape of Lucrece

Plays published:
2 If you Know me Not
2 Return from Parnassus
Gentleman Usher
Sir Giles Goosecap
The Fawn
Wily Beguiled
Monsieur D’Olive
Isle of Gulls

Thomas Dekker, The Seven Deadly Sins
Johann Arndt, Wahres Christentum
Joseph Justus Scaliger, Thesaurus Temporum, chronology of ancient times

Bank of Genoa fails after announcement of national bankruptcy in Spain
Last unpredicted appearance of Halley's Comet widely and precisely  obaserved all over Europe
Plan of the Three Canals approved in Amsterdam

Jamestown, Virginia, settlement founded, 13 May
Flight of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel to Spain
Midlands risings against enclosures break out in Warwickshire
Thomas Deloney dies
John Harvard born in London, 26 November
Wenceslaus Hollar, English printmaker, born, 13 July
"The Great Frost" begins, cold spell that froze the Thames for six weeks, December
Henry Hudson explores Greenland coast to Hold-with-Hope, 73º, 30’ N, sails to Spitsbergen, 80º, 23’ N
Susanna Shakespeare marries John Hall, 5 June
Edmund Shakespeare, William’s youngest brother, dies, buried 31 December

Henry Chettle dies (?)
Master of Revels assumes power of licensing plays for publication as well as for stage

Plays produced:
Ben Jonson, The Entertainment of the King and Queen at Theobald’s, 22 May
George Wilkins and Thomas Heywood, The Miseries of Enforced Marriage, 
Francis Beaumont, The Knight of the Burning Pestle
Thomas Heywood, The Rape of Lucrece
Travels of the Three English Brothers
Humour out of Breath
Tourneur, The Atheist’s Tragedy
William Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra
William Shakespeare, Coriolanus
William Shakespeare, Timon of Athens

The Rape of Lucrece, O4, by Okes for Harrison
Honoré d’Urfé, Astrée, pastoral romance
John Cowell, The Interpreter, a law dictionary
Wiliam Byrd, Gradualia
John Norden, The Surveyors’ Dialogue, manual of surveying

Plays published:
Thomas Middleton, The Revengers Tragedy
Westward Hoe
Thomas Dekker, The Whore of Babylon
The Fair Maid of the Exchange
The Phoenix
Michaelmas Term
The Woman Hater
George Chapman, Bussy D’Ambois
Cupid’s Whirligig
Travels of the Three English Brothers
The Miseries of Enforced Marriage
The Puritan
Northward Hoe
What You Will
The Devil’s Charter
A Woman Killed with Kindness
Sir Thomas Wyatt
William Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew, Q3, "bad quarto," by Simmes for Ling
William Shakespeare, King Lear entered in Stationers’ Register, 26 November

Monteverdi’s La Favola d’Orfeo performed in Mantua, 24 February
George Babcotte, pioneer funerary violinist, commits suicide, 16 January, buried near Devil's Dyke, Sussex

Second "False Dimitri" defeats Czar Vasili Shuisky and advances on Moscow
Treaty of Lieben between Emperor Rudolf and Archduke Mathias settles "Brothers Quarrel," territories exchanged, 25 June

Jesuit State of Paraguay established in South America
Jesuit missionaries arrive in Canada
Hans Lippershey builds first refracting telescope in Netherlands
Galileo constructs astronomical telescope
New bourse opens in Amsterdam

O’Dogherty rebellion in Ireland defeated
Sir Francis Vere dies, 28 August
John Milton born in Bread Street, Cheapside, 9 December
Sir Aston Cokayne baptised, 20 December
Calvin’s Case - Scots born after Union of Crowns naturalized as English citizens
First Gaelic translation of Book of Common Prayer
Notorious pirates executed in London
Royal Blackheath Golf Club founded in London
James orders "Society of Antiquaries" to cease meeting
John Dee dies
Mary Arden Shakespeare buried, 9 September

Children at Blackfriars disbanded
King’s Men begin performances at Blackfriars
John Marston imprisoned in Newgate, 8 June

Giambologna, Equestrian statue of Ferdinando I, Piazza Santissima Annunziata, Florence

Plays produced:
The Faithful Shepherdess, John Fletcher
Philaster, Beaumont and Fletcher
The Maid’s Tragedy, Beaumont and Fletcher
Charles, Duke of Biron
Appius and Virginia
William Shakespeare, Pericles, Prince of Tyre

Plays Published:
Middleton, A Trick to Catch the Old One
The Family of Love
Merry Devil of Edmonton
Law Tricks
Humour out of Breath
Yorkshire Tragedy
Rape of Lucrece
Tragedy of Biron
Middleton, A Mad World, my Masters
Dumb Knight
William Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV, Q4, for Law
William Shakespeare, The Chronicle History of King Lear, Q1, by Okes for Butter
William Shakespeare, Richard II, Q4, by White for Gossen

Richard West, A Century of Epigrams
Joseph Hall, Characters of Virtues and Vices
Edward Grimestone, A General History of the Netherlands
William Perkins, A Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchecraft
Captain John Smith, A True Relation of such Occurences and Accidents of Note as hath passed in Virginia
Edition of Herodotus' Histories published in Germany with first division into numbered paragraphs.

Grand Duke Ferdinando I of Florence dies, succeeded by his son, Cosimo II
King James brokers twelve-year Truce of Antwerp between Spanish and Dutch
Amsterdam Exchange Bank, Wisselbank, established
Dutch East India Company imports first tea from China
Spanish found Santa Fe, New Mexico
Congregation of Female Jesuits founded, soon dissolved by Pope Urban VIII
Rudolf signs “Letter of Majesty” enlarging Protestant rights in Bohemia, 9 July
Galileo Galilei begins astronomical observations with a telescope
Henry Hudson sails into New York harbor and up Hudson River, 13 September
Hudson's First Mate calls the land to the starboard side "Manhattan"
Samuel de Champlain explores Lake Champlain
Dutch theologian Arminius dies
Saint John Leonardi dies
26 November, Henrietta Maria, later Queen of England, born to Marie de Medici and Henri IV of France

Plantation of Ulster established
Charterhouse School founded
Construction of "New River" water supply for London begun
Sir Philip Sidney’s funeral, 16 February
Thomas Harriot draws first telescopic study of full moon, early August, several months before Galileo

El Greco, Brother Paravicino
Rubens, Self-portrait with his Wife, Isabella Brant
Sassoferrato, Italian painter, born, 29 August
Artus Quellin I, Flemish sculptor, born, 30 August

Sir John Suckling born
John Marston ordained deacon in parish church of Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire, 24 Sept.
John Marston ordained priest, 24 December

Plays produced:
William Shakespeare, Cymbeline
George Chapman, The Widow’s Tears,
Nathan Field, A Woman is a Weathercock
Ben Jonson, Epicoene by Children of the Queen’s Revels at Whitefriars
Philaster; or, Love Lies Bleeding, by Beaumont and Fletcher (?)

Plays published:
William Shakespeare, Pericles, Q1and Q2, by White for Gossen
William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Q3, for Smethwick
William Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, by Eld for Bonian and Walley
The Case is Altered
Every Woman in her Humour
Two Maids of Moreclack
The Faithful Shepherdess, Beaumont and Fletcher

Music published:
Deuteromelia: or The Second part of Musicks melodie, by Thomas Ravenscroft, with "Three Blind Mice"

Shakespeare’s Sonnets entered in Stationers’ Register by Thomas Thorpe, 20 May
Shakespeare’s Sonnets, published by Eld for Thorpe
Shakespeare’s A Lover’s Complaint published by Eld for Thorpe
The Gull’s Hornbook, Thomas Dekker
Thomas Dekker, Belman of London
Lope de Vega, Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo (The New Art of Writing Plays)
Sir Francis Bacon, De sapienta veterum
Garcilaso de la Vega, History of the Conquest of Peru
Hugo Grotius, Mare Librum, advocates freedom of the sea
Charles Butler, De feminine monarchie, or a Treatise concerning Bees
Johann Kepler, De motibus stellae Martius
The Douai Bible, Old Testament, for training English priests in France

Marie de Medici’s belated coronation at St. Denis, to insure her dynastic claims 
     in case anything happened to Henri IV on his upcoming campaign, 13 May
King Henri IV of France assassinated by Ravaillac, 14 May, succeeded by Louis XIII, Marie is Regent
First Dutch settlers land on Manhattan Island, 10 June
Dutch East India Company introduces the term "share" to describe a portion of ownership in a venture
Elector Palatine Frederick IV dies, succeeded by his son Frederick V
Skirmishes between English and Dutch settlers in India
Academy of Poetry founded in Padua
Galileo Galilei takes up post as philosopher for Cosimo II in Florence
Galileo Galilei, using a telescope, discovers the four moons of Jupiter
Czar Vasili Shuisky deposed, throne offered to Bladislav, son of Sigismund III of Poland
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth defeats Russian forces at Battle of Kłuszyn, 4 July
Shen Ching dies

Sir Thomas Gates made governor of Virginia
English colonize Newfoundland at Cupid's Cove
Prince Henry created Prince of Wales
James I prorogues Parliament
Robert Persons, leader of the English Jesuits, dies
Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham found Wadham College, Oxford
Henry Glapthorne born, Whittlesey, Cambridgeshire, 28 July
Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, dies, 2 November
Ben Jonson renounces Catholicism, returns to Anglican Church
Richard Crawshaw born
Wadham College founded at Oxford
Stationers Company begins to send a copy of every book printed to Bodleian Library
Thomas Bodley advises his librarian to discard play scripts and other ephemera to reduce clutter
Lady Arabella Stuart imprisoned for marrying William Seymour
Thomas Harriott observes sunspots, December

Michelangelo Merisi di Caravaggio dies on the beach at Porto Ercole north of Rome
El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal
Caravaggio, The Beheading of St. John the Baptist, for Oratory of the Knights of Malta
Rubens, Raising of the Cross
Stefano della Bella, Italian printmaker, born, 18 May
Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch painter, born, 10 December
David Teniers II, Flemish painter, born, 15 December
Juan de la Cueva dies

Plays produced:
George ChapmanThe Revenge of Bussy D’Ambois
Beaumont and Fletcher (?), The Maid’s Tragedy
Thomas Heywood, The Fair Maid of the West, Part I, 
Ben Jonson, The Alchemist
Dekker and Webster, The Roaring Girl
Thomas Dekker, If It Be Not Good, the Devil Is in It
William Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale

Plays published:

Perez de Hita, The Civil Wars of Granada
Jean Beguin, Tyrocinium chymicum, first chemistry textbook
John Speed, Theatrum of Great Britain, collection of maps
Galileo, Sidereus nuncius
John Donne, Ignatius his Conclave

Sanctorius makes scaled "thermoscope," first practical thermometer
Dutch merchants permitted to trade in Japan
University of Rome founded
Li Yü born

James I creates rank of Baronet, 22 May, sells it to raise cash
King James Bible published
James I dissolves parliament
Henry Hudson cast adrift to die in Hudson Bay by mutinous crew, 23 June
Lady Arabella Stuart escapes from Bishop of York disguised as a boy
Shakespeare enrolled with principal inhabitants of Stratford, 11 September
William Cartwright born, Northway, Gloucestershire, September
Mary Frith, aka Moll Cutpurse, performs at the Fortune Theatre
John Donne writes "An Anatomy of the World"
James passes over Lancelot Andrewes to appoint George Abbot as Archbishop of Canterbury
William Laud elected president of St. John’s College, Oxford

Rubens, Descent from the Cross
John Webb, later assistant to Inigo Jones, born
Carlo Rainaldi, Italian architect, born, 4 May

Plays produced:
William Shakespeare, The Winters Tale performed at The Globe, 15 May
A King and No King, by Beaumont and Fletcher
Cataline, by Ben Jonson, performed by King’s Men
Nathan Field, Amends for Ladies
Thomas Heywood, The Golden Age
Thomas Heywood, The Silver Age
William Shakespeare, The Tempest
John Cooke, Greene's Tu Quoque. Queen Anne's Men at The Red Bull

Plays published:
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Q3, for Smethwick
William Shakespeare, Pericles, Q3, by Stafford
William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, Q3, by Allde for White
Barry, Ram-Alley
Cyril Tourneur, The Atheist’s Tragedy
George Chapman, The Golden Age
Ben Jonson, Cataline
May Day
Dekker and Middleton, The Roaring Girl

George Chapman completes and publishes his translation of The Iliad
King James Bible
"Judas Bible," Matthew 26:36 reads "Judas" instead of "Jesus"
John Donne, Anatomy of the World
Sebastiano Serlio’s Architettura, first English edition, translated from Dutch
Thomas Coryate, Coryat's Crudities hastily gobbled up in Five Months Travels in France, Italy, &c
Thomas Coryate, Coryats Crambe, or his Coleworte twice Sodden
John Speed, Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain under the Conquests of the Romans, etc.
John Napier, second edition of Logarithms

Rudolf II dies, his brother Matthias, King of Bohemia, succeeds as Emperor
Imperial capitol moved from Prague to Vienna
Dutch begin to use Manhattan as fur trading center
Simon Marius discovers Andromeda nebula
Bartholomew Pitiscus uses decimal point in his trigonometrical tables

Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, dies, 31 May
Viscount Rochester succeeds Cecil as secretary of state
Bermudas colonies founded from Virginia
Tobacco first planted in Virginia
Prince Henry, heir to the British crown, dies, 6 November
Gilbert Shakespeare, William’s younger brother, is buried, 3 February

London Council orders theatres to "abolishe all Jigges Rymmes and Daunces after there playes," 12 October
Samuel Butler born, baptised at Strensham, Worcestershire, 8 February
Thomas Killigrew born in Lothbury, London, 7 February

Plays produced:
Thomas Heywood, The Brazen Age
John Webster, The White Devil
William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, All Is True  (a.k.a. King Henry VIII) , King's Men
William Shakespeare and John Fletcher, The Two Noble Kinsmen, King's Men
Lope de Vega, Fuenteovejuna

Plays published:
William Shakespeare, Richard III, Q5, by Creede for Law
Ben Jonson, The Alchemist
Nathan Field, Woman is a Weathercock
Christian Turned Turk
George Chapman, Widow’s Tears
John Webster, White Devil
Thomas Dekker, If It Be Not Good The Devil Is in It
Mira de Amescua, El esclavo del demonio

Michael Drayton, Poly-Olbion
Shelton’s translation of Don Quixote
Henry Peachum, Minerva Britannia
Thomas Heywood, An Apology for Actors
The Passionate Pilgrim, O3, by Jaggard
Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus
Adacemia dell Crusca, Vocabolario
Jakob Böhme, Aurora, oder Morgenröte im Aufgant
Sir John Davies, Discoverie of the True Causes Why Ireland Was Not Entirely Subdued
Roger Fenton, Treatise of Usurie
Antonio Neri, L’Arte vetraria, on glassmaking
John Smith, Map of Virginia

El Greco, Baptism of Christ
Peter Paul Rubens, The Conversion of St. Bavon
Michel Anguier, French sculptor, born, 1612
Carlo Maderno, Borronini’s father-in-law, appointed architect of St. Paul’s, Rome

Michael Pretorius, Terpsichore
Orlando Gibbons, First Set of Madrigals and Motets
Giovanni Battista Guarini dies
Giovanni Gabrieli dies

German Protestants sign treaty of alliance with Holland
Michael Romanov founds Romanov dynasty of Russian Czars
Samuel de Champlain explores Ottawa River to Alumette Island
Turks invade Hungary
Amsterdam Exchange built

James I issues his first proclamation against dueling and concealed weapons, January
Sir Thomas Overbury poisoned in The Tower by agents of Lady Howard, 15 Sept.
Princess Elizabeth marries Elector Palatinate, February, The Tempest performed at Court
Hugh Myddleton’s "New River" water supply for London opens, 29 September
Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, marries Lady Frances Howard, 26 December
Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, created Earl of Somerset, in keeping with his new wife’s rank
Francis Bacon becomes Attorney General
English colonists from Virginia destroy French settlement at Port Royal, Nova Scotia
Belfast incorporated 
Thomas Bodley dies, leaving the bulk of his estate to The Bodleian Library at Oxford
Copper coins first come into use
Richard Shakespeare, William’s brother, buried, 4 February

Shakespeare et al sign indenture to purchase Blackfriars, 10 March
Globe Theatre destroyed by fire during a performace of All Is True, aka Henry VIII, 29 June
Phillip Henslowe contracts to build The Hope Theatre for plays and animal baiting, 29 August
Thomas Dekker imprisoned for debt

Plays produced:
Thomas Middleton, A Chaste Maid in Cheapside
Honest Man’s Fortune
Thomas Heywood, The Iron Age
Shakespeare and Fletcher, The Two Noble Kinsmen
Lope de Vega, Fuenteovejuna

Plays published:
William Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV, Q5, by White for Law
William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, Q4, probably for Smethwick
George Chapman, The Revenge of Bussy d’Ambois
Thomas Heywood, The Silver Age
Thomas Heywood, The Brazen Age
Marston and Barksted, The Insatiate Countess
Francis Beaumont, The Knight of the Burning Pestle

Thomas Drayton, Polyolbion
William Browne, Britannia’s Pastorals
Cawdry, Table Alphabeticall
Miguel de Cervantes, Novelas ejemplares

Oliver de Serra, The Causes of Wealth
Francisco Suarez, Defensio catholicae fidei contra anglicanae sectae errores
Pietro Cerone, El Malopeo y maestro, history and theory of music
John Dennys, The Secrets of Angling

Guido Reni, Aurora, frescoes in Rome
Mattia Preti, Italian painter, born,  24 February
André Lenôtre, French landscape architect, born, 12 March
Gerard Dou, Dutch painter, born, 7 April
Claude Perrault, French architect, born, 25 September

Monteverdi appointed Maestro di cappella at St. Mark’s Cathedral, Venice
Monteverdi robbed by highwaymen on his way to Venice from Cremona to take up new post
Carlo Gesualdo, Italian composer, dies

Adraen Block explores Long Island Sound
Danish East India Company founded
Unversity of Gronigen, Holland, founded
Cornelius Jacobsen Mey explores the Lower Delaware
Pierre de Bourdeille, Seigneur de Brantôme, dies
Bankruptcy of Augsburg banking house of Welser
Willam Bathe, Irish Jesuit educational innovator, dies, 17 June, b. 1564

Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, named Lord Chamberlain
James I summons "Addled Parliament"
Parliament refuses to discuss finance and is dissolved
James I issues second proclamation against dueling, February
Virginia colonists prevent French settlements in Maine and Nova Scotia
Chapman’s translation of The Odyssey (12 books) completed (?)
Founders’ Company in London incorporated
Attempt to revive Society of Antiquaries fails due to royal hostility
Pocahontas marries John Rolfe, 5 April

The Second Globe opens 
Bartholomew Fair acted at the new Hope Theatre, October

Domenichini, Last Communion of St. Jerome
Domenikos Theotocopoulos, "El Greco," dies in Toledo, 8 April
Santino Salari builds Salzburg Cathedral
Juan Carreño de Miranda, Spanish painter, born, 25 March
Robert Smythson, architect, dies
Inigo Jones visits Italy, meets Scamozzi, acquires Palladio's I Quatro Libri

Plays Produced: 
Bartholomew Fair, Ben Jonson
John Webster, The Duchess of Malfi

Sir Thomas Overbury, Characters
Sir Walter Raleigh, The History of the World
John Napier, Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio, first table of logarithms
Santorio Santorio, De medicina statica, study of metabolism and perspiration

Girolamo Frescobaldi, Toccate de Cembalo
Marco da Gagliano, Masses and Motets
Sir William Leighton, Teares and Lamentationes of a Sorrowful Lute

Giovanni Bembo elected Doge of Venice
French States Generals dismissed, reforms promised
Marguérite de Valois dies
Louis XIII marries Anne of Austria / Philip of Asturias marries Elizabeth of Bourbon
Dutch seize the Moluccas from the Portuguese
English fleet defeats Portuguese off coast of Bombay
Anne Turner executed for murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, 15 November
George Villiers emerges as royal favorite
Lady Arabella Stuart dies in the Tower
Jesuits count 13,112 members in 32 provinces
Giambattista della Porta, Italian scientist, dies
Galileo Galilei summoned before the Inquisition
Franfurter Oberpostamts-Zeitung founded by Egenolph Emmel
Merchant Adventurers granted monopoly for export of English cloth
John Donne ordained, 23 January

Plays Produced:
Samuel Coster, Spel van de Rijcke Man, farce 
Tirso de Molina, Marta lo piadosa

Plays Published:
William Shakespeare, Richard II, Q5, for Law
George Ruggle, Ignoramus, Cambridge University farce
Miguel de Cervantes, El rufián dichoso

Miguel deCervantes, Don Quixote, Part II
William Camden, Annales rerum Anglicarum, or, The History of the Most Renowned and Victorious Princess Elizabeth, late Queen of England
Antoine de Montchrétien, Traité de l’économie politique

Salomon de Brosse workds on Palais de Luxembourg
Domenichino, Scenes for the Life of St. Cecilia
Rubens, The Battle of the Amazons
Salvator Rosa, Italian painter, born, 20 June

Italians make first, unsuccessful, attempt to grow pineapples in hothouses
Richelieu becomes Minister of State for Foreigh Affairs and War in France
Willem Schouter and Jacob Lemaire make first rounding of Cape Horn
Catholic Church forbids Galileo to continue scientific work
Dutch astronomer Willebrord Snellius discovers law of refraction

Earl of Worcester, a Catholic, made Lord Privy Seal
Sir Thomas Lake made secretary of state
James I, frustrated by continued dueling, bars carrying pistols or daggers
Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice, removed as judge
Sir Walter Raleigh released from Tower to lead expedition to Guiana
James I begins to sell peerages as well as baronetcies
Earl and Countess of Somerset convicted and imprisoned for murder of Thomas Overbury
William Baffin and Robert Bylot discover Baffin Bay, explore to Smith Sound
Baffin names Hakluyt Island

Judith Shakespeare marries Thomas Quiney, 10 February

Richard Hakluyt dies, 23 November; buried in Westminster Abbey, 26 November
Carlo Dolci, Italian painter, born, 25 May
Inigo Jones builds "Queen’s House" in Greenwich

Christopher Beeston begins construction of Cockpit Theatre in Drury Lane, August

Philip Henslowe dies, 6 January

Ben Jonson granted pension of one hundred marks a year for life, 1 February
Shakespeare draws up draft of his will, 25 January
Francis Beaumont dies, 6 March 
Shakespeare signs his will, 25 March
Cervantes dies in Madrid, 23 April (n.s.)
Shakespeare dies in Stratford, 23 April (o.s.)
Shakespeare buried, 25 April
T’ang Hsien-tsu dies

Plays Produced:
Ben Jonson, The Devil Is an Ass
Ben Jonson, Christmas His Masque at Court
Thomas Middleton, The Witch

Plays Published:
Jonson publishes Works, including some plays
Sir William Alexander, The Monarchic Tragedies
Bearmont and Fletcher, The Scornful Lady
William Haughton, Englishmen for my Money, or A Woman Will Have Her Will
Anthony Munday, Chrysanaleia: The Golden Fishing

Johann Valentin Andrea, Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosenkreutz
St. François de Sales, Traite de l’amour de Dieu
John Smith, A Description of New England
Gustavus Selenus (August von Brauschweig), Chess, or the Game of Kings
William Shakespeare, The Rape of Lucrece, O5, by Snodham for Jackson
Barnaby Rich, My Lady's Looking Glass
Thomas Coryate, Greetings from the Court of the Great Mogul

Frans Hals, The Banquet of the Civic Guard of the Archers of St. George
Peter Paul Rubens, The Lion Hunt
Sébastien Bourbon, French painter, born, 2 February
Ferdinand Bol, Dutch painter, born, 24 June
Eustache Le Sueur, french painter, born, 19 November

The Oñate treaty a secret treaty between the Austrian and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg, 29 July
First known "Centenary" celebration, of Luther's 1517 Theses, Saxony
Peace of Stolbova cedes Russian Baltic territories to Sweden

Elias Ashmole born, 23 May
James I makes George Villiers Earl of Buckingham, Jan. 

Francis Bacon made Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal
James proclaims that nobility and gentry should leave London and repair to their estates 
James makes his only return visit to Scotland as King of England
Irish Articles promulgated for Irish Church
Sir Walter Raleigh reaches mouth of Orinoco River
First African slaves arrive at Jamestown, 16 August

Mathematician John Napier, inventor of the logarithm, dies
Willebrord Snellius uses trigonometrical triangulation for cartography
Pocahontas dies
Francisco Suarez dies

Shakespeare Quiney, Shakespeare’s grandson, buried, 8 May

Ben Jonson appointed first official "Poet Laureate"

Dominichino, Diana’s Hunt
Guido Reni, The Deeds of Hercules
Anthony Van Dyck, A Study of Four Negro Hands

Plays produced:
Théophile de Viau, Pyramus et Thisbe
Middleton and Rowley, A Fair Quarrel
John Fletcher, The Mad Lover, at court
Ben Jonson, The Vision of Delight, at Court
Thomas Middleton, The Triumphs of Honour and Industry

Plays Published:
Ben Jonson, Lovers Made Men
Thomas Middleton and William Rowley, A Fair Quarrel
Thomas Middleton, The Triumphs of Honour and Industry

John Calvin’s collected works, in Geneva
Les Maximes de la Gentillesse et de l'Honnestete en la Conversation entre les Hommes, Leonard Perin
William Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis, O9, by Stansby for Barrett

Biagio Marini, Musical Events, sonata for solo violin
J. H. Schein, Banchetto musicale, first dance suite

Giovanni Bembo, Doge of Venice, dies
Francis Bacon created Lord Chancellor
Sir Robert Naunton made chief secretary of state
Prince William of Orange dies, succeeded by his brother Maurice of Nassau
Sir Walter Raleigh beheaded in the Tower, 29 October
Synod of Dort, British representatives affirm Calvinism and condemn Arminianism
The West India Company incorporated for trade in Guinea and Benin
Dutch West African Company founded
Inigo Jones lays out Lincoln's Inn Fields
Richard Quiney, Shakespeare’s grandson, christened, 9 February

The Thirty Years War begins:
   Count Matthias von Thurn leads Bohemian revolt against Prague Regents
   Regents Jaroslav von Martinitz and William Slawata defenestrated by rebels in Prague, flee to Austria
   Duke Albert of Prussia dies, his possessions pass to the Electorate of Brandenberg
   Imperial Army under Count Karl Bucquoi enters Bohemia to suppress rebels
   Elector Palatine ejected by Spanish

Bernini, Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius, sculpture
Jacob Jordaens, Adoration of the Sheperds
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Spanish painter, born, 1 January
Jean Lepautre, French designer, born, 28 June
Sir Peter Lely, English painter, born, 14 September

Aleotti completes the Teatro Farnese in Parma

Plays Produced:
The Merry Devil of Edmonton
Thomas Dekker and Day, The Life and Death of Guy of Warwick
Anthony Munday, Siderothriambos, or Steel and Iron Triumphing, civic pageant

Plays Published:
Daubridgcourt Belchier, Hans Beer-Pot, His Invisible Comedy of See Me and See Me Not
Nathan Field, Amends for Ladies
Barton Holyday, Technogamia, or The Marriages of the Arts

James I, The Book of Sports
Pharmacopoeia Londinensis
Robert Balfour, Commentarii in organum logicum Aristotelis
John Stow and E. Howes, A Summarie of Englyshe Chronicles
Martin Böhme, Ein neu Buch von bewehrten Rosz-Arsteneyen, veterinary science
Johannes Kepler, Harmonices mundi, stating third law of planetary motion
John Jakob Scheuchzer, Natural History of the Swiss Landscape
Geffrey Minshul, Essays and Characters of a Prison and Prisoners

Giulio Caccini, camarata composer, dies

Maria de’ Medici challenges power of her son Louis XIII of France
Louis recalls Richelieu from Avignon, defeats his mother’s forces at Angers
Treaty of Angoulême ends conflict
Emporer Matthias dies, Archduke Ferdinand elected to succeed him
Count von Thurm leads army of Bohemian patriots toward Vienna
Bohemian Diet deposes Ferdinand, elects Frederick V, Elector Palatine, their king
Dritlippolyt Guarinoni dreams of death, in 1462, of Anderl vonn Rinn, leads to anti-Semitic Blood Libel Cult
House of Burgesses, first representative colonial assembly in America, convenes at Jamestown, 30 July
Dutch slave traders deliver first black indentured servants at Jamestown, establishing slavery, August
Queen Anne dies, 2 March; theaters probably closed until her funeral 13 May
Cyrano de Bergerac born, 6 March
Prince Rupert, son of Elector Palatine and Princess Elizabeth, born, 18 December
Philips Koninck, Dutch painter, born, 5 November
Richard Field, originally of Stratford, elected Master of The Stationers Company

Thomas Dekker released from debter’s prison
Inigo Jones designs Banqueting House at Whitehall
Richard Burbage dies, 13 March; buried at St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, 16 March
Ben Jonson awarded honorary M.A. by Oxford, 17 July

Plays produced:
Sir John Van Olden Barnevelt, Massinger and Fletcher
Beaumont and Fletcher, A King and No King
Thomas Middleton, The Inner Temple Masque, or Masque of Heroes
Thomas Middleton, The Triumphs of Love and Antiquity, Lord Mayor's Show

Plays published:
Pavier and Jaggard attempt to publish Shakespeare collection, 
     results in deliberately misdated quartos of Lear and other plays
William Shakespeare, Pericles, Q4, by Jaggard for Pavier
William Shakespeare, Merry Wives of Windsor, Q2, by Jaggard for Johnson
William Shakespeare, 2 & 3 Henry VI, Q3, by Jaggard for Pavier
Falsely dated quartos:
Henry V, Q3, dated 1608, by Jaggard for Pavier
King Lear, Q2, dated 1608, by Jaggard for Pavier
The Merchant of Venice, Q2, dated 1600, by Roberts for Jaggard
Midsummer Night’s Dream, Q2, dated 1600, by Roberts for Jaggard
Anonymous, Two Wise Men and All the Rest Fools
Beaumont and Fletcher, A King and No King
Beaumont and Fletcher, The Maid's Tragedy
Thomas Middleton, The Inner Temple Masque, or Masque of Heroes, The Triumphs of Love and Antiquity

Honoral Racan, Les Bergeries
Georg Rudolf Weckherlin, Oden und Gesänge
Johann Valentin Andreae, Christianopolis
Jakob Bohme, On the Principles of Christianity
Hugo Grotius, De veritate religionis Christianae
John Bainbridge, An Astronomical Description of the Late Comet

Charles Le Brun, French painter, born, 24 February
Nicholas Hilliard dies
Bernini, Aeneas and Anchises with the Boy Ascanius

Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, compiled by Francis Tregian
Michael Praetorius, Syntagma musicum volume two, De Organographia.
Marco da Gagliano, Medoro
Heinrich Schütz, Psalms
Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Cantiones sacrae

Massacre of Protestants in the Valtelline
Agreement of Ulm between German Catholic League and Protestant Union
English volunteers serve with Elector Palatine’s army in Bohemia
Lower Austria submits to Emperor Ferdinand
Marie de Medici reconciled with Louis XIII and readmitted to French court
Turks defeat Polish army at Jassy
Battle of White Mountain near Prague. Bohemian revolt crushed, 8 November
Mikls Zrinyi, Hungarian poet and hero, born
Willem Janszoom Blaeu develops the "Dutch Press," with counterweighted platen, Amsterdam
First merry-go-round introduced, Turkey, 17 May

Mayflower leaves Britain, 16 September
Mayflower reaches Cape Cod, 19 November
Mayflower Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock in Massachusets, 26 December, John Carver governor
John Evelyn born in Wotton, Surrey, 31 October
Thomas Campion dies
Thomas Harriot dies, probably of skin cancer, July 2
Cornelis Drebbel invents first submarine. James I takes a test dive
Dutch "corantos" published in English and French translations, pioneer "newspapers," December
First English language newspaper published, 2 December ?

Thomas Middleton appointed City Chronologer

Bernini, Neptune and Triton
Jacob Jordaens, Passage to Antwerp
Rubens, Chapeau de paille
Van Dyck, St. Sebastian
Velázquez, The Water Seller of Seville
Claes Berchem, Dutch painter, born, 1 October
Pierre Puget, French sculptor, born, 16 October
Aelbert Cuyp, Dutch painter, born, 20 October

Plays produced:
Ben Jonson, News from the New World Discovered in the Moon
Ben Jonson, An Entertainment at the Blackfriars
Ben Jonson,  Pan's Anniversary, or The Shepherd's Holiday
John Squire, Tel Irenes Trophaea, or The Triumphs of Peace, Lord Mayor's Show
Thomas May, The Heir

Plays Published:
Anonymous, Swetnam the Woman -Hater Arraigned by Women
Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Philaster
I.C., The Two Merry Milkmaids
Thomas Middleton and William Rowley, The World Tossed at Tennis
John Squire, Tes Irenes Trophaea, or The Triumphs of Peace

Johann Heinrich Alsted, Encyclopaedia septem tomis distincta
Francis Bacon, Instauratio magna: novum organum scientiarum
Edmund Gunter, Canon triangulaorum, treatise on logrithms
J. P. Bonet, The Art to Teach Dumb People to Speak
Thomas Gataker, Marriage Duties Briefly Couched Together out of Colossians 18&19
The New Tydings out of Italie Are Not Yet Com
, 1st English language Dutch "Coranto," Amsterdam 12 Dec
Corrant out of Italy, Germany &c,  Second English language Dutch "Coranto," Amsterdam, December

Monteverdi, Seventh Book of Madrigals
Michael Praetorius, Syntagma musicum, musical encyclopedia

Pope Paul V dies, Alexander Ludovisi becomes Pope Gregory XV
Saint Robert Bellarmine dies in Rome, 17 September
Grand Duke Cosimo II or Florence dies, his son, Ferdinando II succeeds under regency
Frederick V, Elector Palatine, placed under the ban of the Holy Roman Empire
War shifts from Bohemia to Palatinate
War resumes between Holland and Spain
Heidelberg University Library sacked by Count Tilly’s troops
Cardinal Roberto Bellarmine, Jesuit Counter-Reformation leader, dies
Philip III of Spain dies, succeeded by Philip IV
University of Strasbourg opens
Jean de la Fontaine born Château-Thierry, 8 July

James I's third Parliament assembles, 3 February
Parliament revives impeachment to prosecute monopolists and Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon fined £40,000 for corruption and barred from office, pardoned by James I
John Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, made Lord Keeper
Lionel Cranfield made Lord Treasurer
Archbishop Abbot kills Lord Zouch's gamekeeper in a hunting accident, clouding the rest of his career
John Donne elected Dean of St. Paul's, 22 November
Andrew Marvell born, 31 March

Sir Francis Wyatt arrives as new governor of Virginia
English attempt to colonize Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
John Carver, governor of Plymouth Colony, dies
The Dutch West India Company receives charter for trade monopoly in the West Indies by Dutch Republic

Fortune Theater burns, 9 December

Plays produced:
Thomas Dekker, William Rowley, and John Ford, The Witch of Edmonton
Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, The Wild Goose Chase,
Thomas Middleton, Women Beware Women
Ben Jonson, The Gypsies Metamorphosed
Thomas Middleton, The Sun in Aries, Lord Mayor's Show
Philip Massinger, The Woman's Plot
John Fletcher, The Island Princess
Anonymous, The Man in the Moon Drinks Claret

Plays published:
Guillén de Castro, La mocedades del Cid (The Cid’s Youthful Exploits), inspired Corneille
Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Thierry and Theodoret
Thomas Middleton, The Sun in Aries

Corante, or newes from Italy, Germany, Hungarie, Spaine and France, 1st published in England, by Nathaniel Butter, translated from the Dutch, 24 Sept.
Robert Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy
John Barclay, Argenis
Thomas Munn, A Discourse of Trade from England unto the East Indies
Johann Kepler, The Epitome of the Copernican Astronomer
Sir Philip Sidney, Arcadia, including The Entertainment at Wanstead (The Lady of May)

Bernini, Rape of Proserpina, sculpture
Van Dyck, Rest on the Flight into Egypt
Allart van Everdingen, Dutch painter, born, 18 June

Richlieu recalled to Council, created Cardinal
Treaty of Montpellier ends rebellion of the Huguenots
Mannheim surrenders to Imperial army
English capture Ormuz from Portuguese
Count Olivares becomes chief minister of Spain
Bruges-Dunkirk Canal completed
St. Francis de Sales dies
Benedictine University of Salzburg founded
Papal Chancellery adopts January 1 as beginning of the year, replacing March 25

James I dissolves English Parliament, January
William Baffin dies
Henry Vaughan born, 17 April
English college of Arms re-organized, permanent officers named
Earl and Countess of Somerset freed after pardon for poisoning of Thomas Overbury

William Bradford becomes governor of Plymouth Colony

Sir George Buc, Master of Revels, goes insane after reading hundreds of Early Modern English plays
Office of Master of Revels passes to Sir John Ashley
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, "Molière," baptised, 15 January

Guido Reni, Job
Rubens, The Medici Cycle
Jan Abrahamsz. Beerstraaten, Dutch painter, born, 31 May
Bernini, Pluto and Proserpina

Plays Produced:
Middleton and Rowley, The Changeling
Massinger and Dekker, The Virgin Martyr

Plays Published:
William Shakespeare, 1 Henry IV, Q6, by Purfoot for Law
William Shakespeare, Richard III, Q6, by Purfoot for Law
William Shakespeare, Othello, by Okes for Walkley

Weekeley Newes
issued in London for the first time, 23 May
Butter and Bourne's "news syndicate" resumes publication of "corantos" in London, October

Michael Drayton, Poly-Olbion, Part II
Charles Sorel, Francion, French burlesque

Alessandro Tassoni, La Secchia rapita (The Rape of the Bucket), mock-heroic poem
Francis Bacon, Historia naturalis et experimentalis
Francis Bacon, History of the Reighn of Henry VII
Jacob Böhme, De signatura rerum
Camillo Baldo, Treatise of How to Perceive from a Letter the Nature and Character 
       of the Person Who Wrote It
Henry Peacham, Compleat Gentleman

Pope Gregory XV dies, Maffeo Barberini becomes Pope Urban VIII
Francesco Contarini elected Doge of Venice
Emperor Ferdinand II grants Maximilian, Duke of Bavaria, the Upper Palatinate
Papal troops occupy the Valtelline
Count Tilly defeats Christian of Brunswick at Stadtholn, advances to Westphalia
Bibliotheca Palatina removed from Heidelberg to Rome
Commercial Treaty between Holland and Persia
Blaise Pascal born in Clermont-Ferrand, France, 19 June
Marc’ Antonio Cesti, Italian composer, born

First English settlement in eastern India
James I elevates Earl of Buckingham to Duke
Sir Edward Conway made chief secretary of state
Dutch massacre English colonists at Amboyna, Molucca Islands
Anne Hathaway Shakespeare dies, 6 August
Patents law in England established to protect inventors
William Camden, scholar and antiquarian, dies, 9 November
William Byrd, composer, dies
Prince Charles and Buckingham secretly travel to Madrid to win hand of Spanish Infanta, 17 February 
Prince Charles and Buckingham arrive at British embassy as Tom and Jack Smith, 2 March
Charles and Buckingham leave Madrid, September, travel through Spain, arrive Portsmouth, 5 October

Piet Hein, Dutch adventurer, captures Bahia for Spain
New Netherlands in America formally organized as a province
First English settlement in New Hampshire by David Thomas at Little Harbor, near Rye

Plays produced:
Thomas Dekker and John Ford,The Welsh Ambassador,
Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza, Querer por sólo querer
Philip Massinger, The Duke of Milan

The Duchess of Malfi published by Nicholas Okes
William Drummond, A Cypresse Grove
Shakespeare First Folio entered in SR by Jaggard, Hemmings and Condell, 8 November
William Shakespeare, Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies, by Jaggard and Blount
Tommaso Campanella, Civitas Solis

Bernini, David
François Mansart, St. Marie de la Visitation
Guido Reni, Baptism of Christ
Van Dyck, Cardinal Bentivoglio
Valázquez becomes court painter to Philip IV
Rembrandt becomes pupil of J. I. Swanenburg of Leiden
Inigo Jones builds Queen’s Chapel, Westminster
Jan Vermeer born, 31 October

Richlieu consolidates effective political control of France, made first minister
Francesco Contarini, Doge of Venice, dies
Jakob Böhme dies, 17 November
Johannes Baptista van Helmont coins the name "gas" for compressible fluid
Antonio de Andrade leaves Jesuit mission at Agra to explore Himalayas and Tibet

Stephen Gossen dies, 13 February
James I opens his fourth, and last, Parliament, 10 February
James declares war on Spain, expedition to recapture Palatinate fails
James concludes treaty with the Dutch, June
Treaty with France calls for Prince Charles to marry Henrietta Maria, daughter of Henri IV
James prohibits importation of Spanish tobacco; smuggling increases
Lionel Cranfield, Lord Treasurer, impeached and suspended from office
New law of usury amends 1571 act to reduce interest from "medieval" rate of 10%
Virginia becomes crown colony, Virginia Company dissolved
Dutch establish colony of "New Netherland" at south tip of Manhattan, May
Broadgates Hall renamed Pembroke College, Oxford, after Chancellor, 3rd Earl of Pembroke
George Fox born

Saruwaka Kanzaburo opens first Japanese theater in Edo (Tokyo)

Plays Produced:
John Fletcher, Rule a Wife and Have a Wife, 
Thomas Middleton, A Game at Chess, plays for nine days at The Globe
Philip Massinger, The Bondman

Captain Thomas Gainsford begins editing "corantos" for Butter and Bourne, 1st "newspaper editor"

1st "news syndicate" coranto with the pseudonym Mercurius Britannicus as printer
John Donne, Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions, including "No man is an island..."
Martin Opitz, Das Buch von der deutschen Poeterey
Thomas Heywood, Gunaikeion, or Nine Books of Various History Concerning Women
Henry Briggs, Arithmetica logarithmica
Captain John Smith, A General Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles
Edward Lord Herbert of Cherbury, De veritate
Sir Henry Wotton, The Elements of Architecture

Bernini, David
Frans Hals, The Laughing Cavalier
Nicolas Poussin, The Rape of the Sabine Women
Carel Fabritius born

Sufi reformer Ahmad Sirhini dies in India
James I dies, 27 March. Charles I succeeds
Lord Keeper directed “to forebear all manner of proceeding against His Majesties Catholic subjects” to appease French in marriage treaty,  1 May
Charles marries Henrietta Maria of France, by proxy (Buckingham), in Paris
Henrietta Maria departs Paris for England, 23 May
Sir Thomas Coventry made lord keeper
Charles I seeks to cancel all land grants and regrant them on more favorable terms
Colonial Office established in London
First English settlement on Barbados under Sir William Courteen
First fire engines in England
Hackney coaches first used in London
Order of Sisters of Mercy founded in Paris by Vincent de Paul
Wallenstein appointed General of Imperial forces and created Duke of Friedland
Charles I’s first Parliament convenes, 18 June, but adjourns to Oxford to escape plague, 11 July
Spanish troops under Ambrogio Spinola capture Breda from the Dutch
Tilly invades Lower Saxony
French occupy the Antilles and Cayenne
Orlando Gibbons, composer, dies
"Western Rising" against enclosures
First illustrated textbook published in Hungary
Johannes Piscator, Protestant theologian & Bible translator, dies, Herborn, 27 July  (b. 1546)

John Fletcher dies in London plague epidemic, buried 29 August
Philip Massinger returns to The King’s Men as chief playwright

Plays produced:
John Fletcher and Philip Massinger, The Fair Maid of the Inn
Ben Jonson, The Staple of News
Philip Massinger, A New Way to Pay Old Debts, at The Cockpit/Phoenix
John Cooke, Greene's Tu Quoque, revival, Queen Henrietta's Men, The Cockpit/Phoenix

Joost van der Vondel, Palamedes, political drama

Honorat de Bueil, Les Bergeries, pastoral dialogues
Francis Bacon, Of Masques and Triumphs
Hugo Grotius, De jure belli et pacis, on international law
John Mandeville, The Voyages and Travailes of Sir John Mandeville, Knight

Plays published:
Thomas Middleton, A Game at Chess

Nicolas Poussin, Parnassus
Bernini, Apollo and Daphne
Carlo Maratti, Italian painter, born, 15 May
Domenico Guidi, Italian sculptor, born, 6 June
Paullus Potter, Dutch painter, born, 20 November

Heinrich Schütz, Cantiones sacrae

Saint Peter’s Basilica consecrated in Rome, 18 November
Peace of La Rochelle between Huguenots and French crown
Treaty of Monzon between France and Spain
Wallenstein defeats Mansfeld at Dessau
General Count Ernst von Mansfield dies
Richelieu suppresses Chalais conspiracy, concentrates power in his own hands, first "coup d’état"
French edict prescribes the death penalty for anyone who kills an opponent in a duel
French begin colonization on the Senegal River
Peter Minuit of Dutch West India Co. purchases Manhattan from Canarsie tribesmen, 6 May
Dutch settlers arrive in ship with St. Nicholas figurehead - Santa Claus comes to America

Charles I's coronation held, 2 February
Charles I distributes Knighthoods to any Englishmen with income over £40 a year
Sir Francis Bacon dies, 9 April
Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery, succeeds Earl of Pembroke as Lord Chamberlain.
Buckingham leads failed campaign against Cadiz
York House Conference upholds Arminian teaching, reversing Dort
King Charles declares war on France
Parliament impeaches Buckingham, 8 May
Charles I dissolves Parliament
Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, Count Gondomar, Spanish ambassador, dies
Salem, Massachussetts, founded by Roger Conant
Professorship of music established at Oxford
John Aubrey born, 12 March
Madame de Sévigné born in Paris, 5 February

William Rowley dies, February
Cyril Tourneur dies, 28 February 
Edward Alleyn dies

Plays produced:
William Shakespeare, Hamlet, for the first time in Germany, at Dresden
Philip Massinger, The Roman Actor, 

George Sandys' translation of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, 1st English work written in America
Joseph Hall, Contemplations
William Roper, The Life of Sir Thomas More
Sir Henry Spelman, Glossarium
John Donne, Five Sermons
Francis Bacon, New Atlantis

Rubens, Assumption of the Virgin, alterpiece at Antwerp
Van Dyck, Marchese Paola Adorno and Her Son

"Les vingt-quatres violons du roi," forerunner of symphony orchestra, at Louis XIII's court.

Huguenots revolt against French crown
Charles I dissolves his second Parliament, 12 June
Buckingham leads failed expedition to Île de Rhé, near La Rochelle, in aid of Huguenots, July
Richelieu signs treaty with Spain
Richelieu incorporates "Company of New France"
Swedish South Sea Company founded
Wallenstein conquers Silesia
Tilly defeats Protestant foces in Brunswick
Imperial army occupies Mecklenburg and Jutland, 
Christian IV withdraws to Denmark
Charles I grants charter to the Guiana Company
Luis de Góngora y Argote, Spanish poet, dies
Collegium de Propaganda Fide founded
Robert Boyle born, 25 January
Johannes Kepler compiles the Rudolphine Tables, giving places of 1,005 fixed stars
Johannes Kepler  predicts transits of Venus in 1631 and 1761, and a near miss in 1639

Thomas Middleton dies, buried 4 July
Lope de Vega made doctor of theology by the Pope

Plays performed:
Heinrich Schütz, Dafne, first German opera, with libretto by Martin Opitz, at Torgau
William Davenant, The Cruel Brother (first play)
Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, La verdad sospechosa

Michael Drayton, Nimphidia
Ivan Gondulic, Osman, Croatian epic
Charles Sorel, Le Berger extravagant
Francis Bacon, New Atlantis

Frans Hals, The Merry Drinker
Rembrandt, The Money-Changer
Rubens, Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine

Lodovico Viadana, Italian composer, dies

Spanish silver convoy lost returning from Americas
Wallenstein obtains duchy of Mecklenburg, becomes Admiral of the Baltic, beseiges Stralsund
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, enters war to defend Stralsund
Wallenstein defeated at Stralsund, seige lifted
Vassa, state of the art ship, sinks in Stockholm harbor
La Rochelle capitulates to French crown

Dutch occupy Java and the Moluccas
Taj Mahal built in Agra

Parliament of Charles I meets, 17 March

Oliver Cromwell represents Huntingdon in Parliament
Richard Weston made Lord Treasurer
Sir Dudley Carleton becomes chief secretary of state
Fulke Grevelle, Lord Brooke, dies
William Harvey publishes book describing the circulation of the blood
Duke of Buckingham assassinated by John Felton at Portsmith, 23 August
Parliament passes "Petition of Right"
John Bunyan born in Elstow, near Bedford, 28 November
Parliament removes all record of debate from minutes to encourage free discussion
Earl of Mar builds Braemar Castle, Aberdeen

Farnese Theater opens in Parma
Ben Jonson suffers paralyzing stroke
Ben Jonson appointed City Chronologer of London

Plays produced:
Juan Ruiz de Alarón, La verdad sospechosa

Johann Amos Comenius, Informatorium der Mutterschul, on primary education
Robert Cotton, Life of King Henry III
René Descartes, Règles pour la direction de l’esprit
Henry Spelman, Glossary of Law Terms
William Harvey, Exercitiatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis, on blood circulation

Frans Hals, Gypsey Woman
Nicolas Poussin, Martyrdom of St. Erasmus
Valázquez, Christ on the Cross
François Girardon, French sculptor, born, 17 March
First known depiction of Manhattan, The Hartgers view, drawn. Shows the fort of Nieuw Amsterdam.

Marco da Gagliano, Flora, opera
Heinrich Schütz becomes pupil of Monteverdi in Venice

Shah 'Abbas the Great of Persia dies
Second Takagawa Shogun banishes Takuan Soho to a far northern province
Peace of Lübeck, Christian IV undertakes not to intervene in imperial affairs
Wallenstein made Duke of Mecklenberg
Peace of Alais ends Huguenot revolt in France
Commercial treaty signed between Russia and France

King Charles’ third parliament ends with violent rioting, March 2
Seven MP’s charged with sedition and jailed
Charles starts "Eleven Years Personal Rule"
Peace of Susa ends English war with France
Guild of Spectacle Makers granted royal charter in London
Colony of Massachussetts founded
Edwin Sandys, Governor of Virginia, dies
Albert Gerard uses brackets and other abbreviations in mathematics

Edward Alleyn dies
Whitefriars Theatre demolished, replaced by Salisbury Court Theatre
Women forbidden to perform in Kabuki plays by Tokugawa shogunate

Plays Produced:
Ben Jonson, The New Inn, performed by King’s Men
Richard Brome, The Northern Lass (first play)
Thomas Dekker, London’s Tempe; or, The Field of Happiness (last play)
John Ford, ‘Tis Pity She’s a Whore, (?)
Pedro Calderón de la Barca, El príncipe constante, The Constant Prince
Pedro Calderón de la Barca, La dama duende
Pierre Corneille, Melite, a comedy
John Ford, The Lover’s Melancholy
Philip Massinger, The Roman Actor

Lancelot Andrewes, XCVI Sermans
Thomas Hobbes’ translation of Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War
John Parkinson, Paradisi in sole Paradisus terrestris, on flowers
Martin Opitz, Buch von der deutschen Poeterey
"E.W.," trans., Louis Richeome, The Pilgrime of Loreto, Paris
Gerard Malynes, Lex Mercatoria, London

Van Dyck, Rinaldo and Armida
Valázquez, The Drunkards
Francisco de Zubarán, St. Bonaventura

Heinrich Schütz, Sinfoniae sacrae

Nicolò Contarini elected Doge of Venice
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invades Germany
Ferdinand II dismisses Wallenstein, Tilly named commander of imperial army
Treaty of Madrid ends Ango-Spanish war
Richelieu defeats conspiracy of Maria de’ Medici in "Day of Dupes"
William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, dies, 10 April
Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery, succeeds his brother as 4th Earl of Pembroke
Charles II born, 29 May
Johann Kepler dies, 15 November
Louis XIV marries Spanish princess Maria Thérese, who brings chocolate to France
John Winthrop arrives in Massachusetts as governor and founds Boston
Massachusetts Bay Company founded
Sir John Suckling invents cribbage
Popcorn invented by Quadquina, Massachusetts Bay Company

Corneille, Clitandre
Tirso de Molina, El burlador de Sevilla y convidado de piedra, first Don Juan play
Philip Massinger, The Renegado

Sir John Hayward, The Life and Raigne of King Edward VI
Francis Higginson, New England’s Plantation
George Herbert, Outlandish Proverbs

Frans Hals, Daniel van Aken Playing the Violin
Jusepe Ribera, Archimedes
Rubens, Blessings of Peace

Girolamo Frescobaldi, Arie musicale
Johann Hermann Schein, German composer, dies

Shii philosopher Mir Dimad dies in Isfahan
'Alawi dynasty founded in Morocco, rules there to the present day
Serious Plague outbreak in Europe
Nicolò Contarini, Doge of Venice, dies
German protestant princes convene at Neu Brandenberg and decide to ally with Sweden
Tilly destroys Swedish garrison at New Brandenberg, sacks Magdeburg, invades Saxony
Gustavus Adolphus sacks Frankfort-on-Oder and occupies Würzburg and Mainz
Tilly defeated at Battle of Breitenfeld
Alliance of Gustavus Adolphus and John George, Elector of Saxony
Wallenstein re-appointed Commander-in-Chief of Imperial forces
Maria de’ Medici, exiled to Brussels, allies with Gaston, Duke of Orleans, against Richelieu
Thomas Hobson dies, 1 January
John Donne dies in London, 31 March
Captain John Smith dies, 21 June
King Charles establishes Royal African Companies to trade gold and ivory
Dutch West India Company founds settlement at the Delaware River
English mathematician William Oughtred proposes the symbol "x" for multiplication
Philip Dulichius, German composer, dies
Valencian Guillén de Castro dies
T. Renaudot founds Gazette in Paris
Earthquake in Naples, Vesuvius erupts, killing 4,000
Remains of thousands of Capuchin friars exhumed and transferred from the friary Via dei Lucchesi
     to the crypt of Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini in Rome to create ossuary chapels

London Clockmakers’ Company incorporated

John Dryden born, 9 August

Rembrandt van Rijn, Portrait of his Mother
Velásquez, Infanta Maria, Queen of Hungary
Cornelis de Heem, Dutch painter, born, 8 April

Shakerley Marmion, Holland’s Leaguer, December, Prince Charles’ Men at Salisbury Court Theater
Pedro Calderón de la Barca, La Vida es sueña
Lope de Vega, San Juan Nights
Ben Jonson, The Devil is an Asse
Thomas Dekker, Match Mee in London
Thoms Heywood, The Fair Maid of the West, part II
James Shirley, The Traitor

Plays Published:
Ben Jonson, Plays

Thomas Harriot, Artes Analyticae Praxis, posthumous writings established "English algebra"
Friedrich Spee von Langenfeld, Cautio criminalis, against witch-hunting
Thomas Powell, Tom of All Trades

Takuan Soho returns from banishments and becomes advisor to third Shogun
Gustavus Adolphus takes Nuremberg and defeats Tilly at Lech, Tilly mortally wounded

Gustavus defeats Wallenstein at Battle of Lützen, but is killed in action
Queen Christina succeeds in Sweden, Regency headed by Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna
Van Dyke settles in England as Court painter
First English factory in Africa established at Winneba
Portuguese driven out of Bengal
English settlers in Antigua and Montserrat
Russians establish fur trading center in Yakutsk
Charles I issues charter for Maryland, under governorship of Lord Baltimore
Sir Francis Windebank made chief Secretary of State in England
Star Chamber prohibits publication of Butter and Bourne's "newsbooks" in reaction to Euro war news, Oct.
Samuel Pepys born, 23 February
John Locke born, 29 August
Frances Howard Carr, Countess of Somerset, dies
Christopher Wren born, 20 October
Benedict Spinoza born in Amsterdam, 24 November
Jean Baptiste Lully born
Anton van Leeuwenhoek born in Delft
Giovanni Battista Basile, Italian poet, dies
Leiden University Observatory founded
Monteverdi takes holy orders

Montdory opens Théâtre du Marais in Paris
The Cockpit-in-Court remodelled
Sir George Etherege born (?) either in Bermuda or in England
Thomas Dekker dies, buried 25 August

Plays produced:
Thomas Nabbes, Covent Garden
Richard Brome, Covent Garden Weeded
Philip Massinger, The City Madam

Plays Published:
William Shakespeare, Second Folio
Lyly, Six Court Comedies, published by Edward Blount

Antonio Bosio, Roma soteranea, report on excavation of catacombs in Rome
John Davies, Welsh Dictionary
John Selden, Mare Clausum, on England’s nautical sovereignty
Galileo Galilei, Dialogho sopra I due massimi sistemi del mondo, completed in 1630
Weerdenhagen, Introductio universalis in omnes republicas, comparative politics
Barker and Lucas print "The Wicked Bible," Seventh Commandment: "Thou shalt commit adultery"

Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaas Tulp
Johannes Vermeer born, 31 October
Luca Giordano, Italian painter, born, 18 October

Wallenstein invades Silesia, defeats Swedish army at Steinau
French army occupies Lorraine
Galileo Galilei tried by the Inquisition, forced to recant and to abjure the theories of Copernicus, 22 June
Jacopo Peri, Italian composer, dies
James Gregory expounds principle of the reflecting telescope
"Ghetto Nuovissimo" developed in Venice's Jewish Ghetto, newer quality housing quarter
Charles I crowned King of Scotland in Edinburgh
James II born, 14 October
Fire destroys London Bridge
Archbishop George Abbot dies
William Laud succeeds Abbot as Archbishop of Canterbury
Trial of the Lancashire witches
The Royal Scots Regiment established
Wind sawmill erected near the Strand, London
First Baptist church formed at Southwark, London

Edward Winslow made governor of Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts
John Eliot publishes first Bible in North America, in the Wampanoag dialect
Dutch establish settlement in Connecticut
English trading post established in Bengal

George Herbert dies
Samuel Pepys born, 23 February

Willem van de Velde II, Dutch painter, born, 18 December

Nathan Field dies, buried 20 February 
Anthony Munday dies, buried 10 August

Plays Produced:
John Ford, 'Tis Pity She’s a Whore
Philip Massinger, A New Way to Pay Old Debts
Pedro Calderón de la Barca, La devoción de la cruz
Pedro Calderón de la Barca, El gran teatro del mundo

William Prynne, Histrio-mastix
Works, by John Marston, published by William Sheares, unauthorized, six plays
Edmund Spenser, A View of the Present State of Ireland (published posthumously)
George Herbert, The Temple
John Donne, Poems

Jacques Callot, Les Grandes Misères de la guerre
Rembrandt, Saskia
Van Dyck, Charles I
Jacob van Campen and Pieter Post design Mauritshuis, The Hague

Ferdinand II removes Wallenstein, denouncing him as a traitor
Matthias Gallas made Imperial Commander-in-Chief
Wallenstein assassinated
Swedish army defeated at Battle of Nördlingen
Imperial forces reconquer Würtemberg and Fanconia
Island of Curaçao captured by Dutch
University of Utrecht founded
Covent Garden Market opens in London
English settlement at Cochin, Malabar
Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, explores Wisconsin
Ship Money levied on coastal regions
First tavern in America opens, Boston, 4 March
Ann Hutchinson arrives in Boston, 18 september
Jean Nicolet reaches Lake Michigan
Maryland founded as Catholic Colony with religious tolerence

George Chapman dies, 12 May
John Marston dies in London, 25 June, "in Aldermanbury his house there"

Plays Performed:
The Late Lancaster Witches, by Brome and Fletcher
Love’s Welcome at Bolsover, Ben Jonson (last play )
Milton’s Comus performed at Ludlow Castle, 29 September
James Shirley, The Triumph of Peace
Corneille, La Veuve and La Suivante
John Ford, Perkin Warbeck
The Oberammergau Passion Play, first performance

Plays Published:
The Two Noble Kinsmen, Shakespeare and Fletcher

Méric Casaubon, The Meditations of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Philip Stubbs, A Chrystall Glasse for Christian Women

Zurbarán, The Siege of Cadiz
Rembrandt, Artemisia

Adriano Banchieri dies

French and Swedish sign treaty of alliance against Emperor
Peace of Prague between Emperor and Elector John George of Saxony
Dutch occupy Formosa and Virgin Islands
French colonize Martinique

Samuel de Champlain dies in Quebec, 25 December
Richelieu establishes Académie Française
Budapest University established
Heinrich Gutberleth, innovative educator, d. 24 March, in Deventer  (b. 1572)

Levy of "Ship Money" extended to inland counties
First inland postal service established between London and Edinburgh
John Winthrop begins settlement of Connecticut at Fort Saybrook
Council of New England dissolved
English High and Latin School founded in Boston
Ben Jonson’s only remaining son dies, November
John Hall, Shakespeare’s son-in-law, dies, 25 November 

"Sharers’ Papers" dispute among housekeepers of the Globe
Richard Brome contracts to write plays for the Salisbury Court Theatre, July
Thomas Randolph dies, 17 March
Thomas Betterton born, 11 August
Lope de Vega dies in Madrid, 26 August (n.s.)

Pierre Corneille, Medée
James Shirley, The Lady of Pleasure
William Davenant, News from Plymouth

Frescobaldi, Fiori musicali di toccate

Giulio Alenio, Jesuit missionary, first life of Christ in Chinese
Cornelius Jansen, Mars gallus, attack on Richelieu
Sir Thomas Browne, Religio Medici
Thomas Heywood, Hierarchie of Blessed Angels

Jacques Callot dies
Philippe de Champaigne, Portrait of Richelieu
Nicolas Poussin, Kingdom of Flora
Jacques Callot, French engraver and illustrator, dies, 24 March

Battle of Wittstock, Swedish army defeats Saxons
Austrian troops withdraw from Burgundy
Dutch settle in Ceylon
France lowers silver mint ratios in coinage
Nicolas Boileau born, 1 November

Bishop John Juxon made Lord Treasurer of England
King Charles I promulgates new Canons for Scottish Church
King Charles I visits Oxford University
Harvard College established at Newe Towne, Cambridge; Nathaniel Eaton, president, 28 October
Grammar school, compulsory education established in Boston
Roger Williams expelled from Massachusetts, establishes Providence, Rhode Island, June

Theatres in London closed because of plague, 12 May

Plays Produced:
William Cartwright, The Royal Slave, (first play)
Claracilla, Thomas Killigrew
Richard Brome, The Antipodes
Philip Massinger, The Bashful Lover
Philip Massinger, The Great Duke of Florence
Italian Fedeli Company performs Commedia dell’arte at the French court

Peter Heylyn, The History of the Sabbath
George Sandys, A Paraphrase Upon the Psalms

Rembrandt, Portrait of an 83-Year-Old Woman
Van Dyck, Charles I on Horseback
Velázquez, Prince Baltasar Carlos as a Hunter
Adriaen van de Velde, Dutch painter, born, 30 November

Heinrich Schütz, Kleine geistliche Concerten
Marine Mersenne, Harmonie Universelle, with full description of all musical instruments

Emperor Ferdinand II dies, succeeded by his son Ferdinand III
Dutch under Frederick Henry of Orange recapture Breda
French traders settle at St. Louis, at mouth of Senegal River in West Africa
Plague attacks Florence
Dutch tulip trade collapses leaving many speculators bankrupt
Christianity prohibited in Japan
Dutch expel Portuguese from Gold Coast

Ben Jonson dies, 6 August, buried in Westminster Cathedral, 9 August
New Scottish Prayer Book promulgated by proclamation, Scottish resistance spreads
William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick sentenced to mutilation for criticizing Bishops
English emigration to America restricted by royal proclamation
Sugar production introduced to Barbados
English traders established in Canton

London theatres briefly re-opened, 24 February to 1 March
London theatres re-open after seventeen-month plague closure, 2 October
San Cassiano Theater, first public opera house, opens in Venice

Sir John Suckling, Aglaura
Pierre Corneille, Le Cid
Pedro Calderón de la Barca, El mágico prodigioso

Thomas Hobbes, A Briefe of the Art of Rhetorique, based on Aristotle
René Descartes, Géometrie and Discourse on Method

Van Dyck, Children of Charles I
Rembrandt, Raphael Leaving Tobias
Ribera, Pietá
Frans Hals, Hille Bobbe

Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar takes Freiburg, defeats Duke of Lorraine at Sennheim
Elector of Brandenburg moves his capital to Königsberg
France and Sweden renew their alliance
Ottomans retake Baghdad from the Persians

Louis XIV born
Marie de’ Medici visits London, 31 October
Holland lowers mint ratio of coinage
Johann Heinrich Alsted, Encyclopedist, dies in Weissenburg, Transylvania,    9 November (b. 1588)
Christoph (Keller) Cellarius, born, Schmalkalden, 22 November
Dutch establish commercial colony on island of Mauritius

William Davenant named Poet Laureate
Scottish Covenant formed to withstand religious innovations
King’s right to levy Ship Money upheld by judges in Rex v. Hampden
Torture abolished in England
New Haven, CT, founded
First English fort in Africa built by Royal African Companies in Coramantin
Cornelius Jansen dies
Stephen Daye imports first printing press to N. America, sets up shop in Cambridge, Massachusetts
First permanent library established in America at Harvard College

Plays Produced:
Joost van der Vondel, Gijsbrecht van Amstel, opens Amsterdam's Schouwburg Theatre
Richard Brome and Alexander, The Cunning Lovers
William Davenant, The Fair Favorite
John Ford, The Lady’s Trial
Richard Brome, The Antipodes

Plays Published:
Thomas Nabbes, Covent Garden, dedicated to Sir John Suckling
John Kirke, the Seven Champions of Christendome

Schouwburg Theater opens in Amsterdam

Jonsonus Virbius or The Memory of Ben Jonson Revived by the Friends of the Muses
Niccolò Sabbatini, Practica di fabbricare scene e machine ne’teatri
William Chillingsworth, The Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation
Galileo Galilei, Discorsi e Dimonstrazioni Matematiche
Forgotten Sins Bible with misprint in Luke 7:47

Monteverdi, Eighth Book of Madrigals
John Wilbye, composer, dies

Peiter Breughel the Younger, Hell Breughel
Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia ego
Rubens, The Three Graces
Van Dyck, Lords John and Bernard Stuart
Elisabetta Sirani, Italian painter, born, 8 January
Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter, born, 31 October

Swedish army before Prague
Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar dies
King Charles attempts invasion of Scotland to enforce religious reforms, First "Bishops’ War"
Covenanters take Edinburgh, Dumbarton and Stirling
Charles forced to accept and sign Pacification of Berwick to end war:  Episcopacy abolished in Scotland
Ottomans and Persians make peace
Thomas Carew dies
Academie Française compiles dictionary of the French language
English settle at Madras in India
First printing press in North America established at Cambridge, MA
William Gascoigne invents micrometer
Sir Ferdinando of Gorges receives charter for colony of Maine
Jeremiah Horrocks observes transit of Venus from his home at Carr House in Much Hoole, near Preston, 4 December 1639 (24 November O.S.)
Bacciccio, Italian painter, born, 8 May
Thomas Quiney, Shakespeare’s grandson, dies, buried 26 February

Davenant takes over management of Cockpit Theatre
Shakerley Marmion dies, January
Juan Ruiz de Alarcón dies
Jean-Baptiste Racine born at La Ferté-Milon in northern France, 22 December

Plays Performed:
Pietro Francesco Cavalli, Le Nozze di Teti, "opera-scenica," first use of word "opera" for musical theatre 
Cokayne’s A Masque Presented at Bretbie in Derbyshire on 12th Night
Pierre Corneille, Cinna
Davenant, The Distresses
Drue, The Bloody Banquet
Philip Massinger, The Bondman
Philip Massinger, The Great Duke of Florence

Monteverdi’s opera Andone given at Teatro San Cassione, Venice
Marco Marazzoli and Vergilio Mazzochi, Chi soffre, speri, first comic opera

Rembrandt, Portrait of His Mother
Rubens, Judgement of Paris
Zurbarán, St. Francis in Meditation

Iranian philosopher and mystic Mulla Sadra dies
Thomas Wentworth made Earl of Strafford and appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, January
French complete occupation of Alsace
Swedes withdraw from Bohemia
Elector George William of Brandenberg dies, succeeded by "Great Elector," Frederick William
"Short Parliament" refuses to approve funds for Scottish campaign, April – May
Charles invades Scotland and is defeated at Newburn-on-Tyne, Scots occupy NE England
Treaty of Ripon, Crown to pay Scots £860 each day until settlement is reached
King Charles I calls "Long Parliament," November
Parliament condemns Arminian canons
Laud and Strafford are impeached
English settlers found Fort St. George in Bengal
Abo University founded in Finland
Coke made from coal for the first time
John IV succeeds to Portugese throne, ending Spanish rule
Sultan Murad IV of Turkey, dies
Cotton goods begin to be manufactured in Manchester
Robert Burton dies, 25 January

John Day dies
John Ford dies (?)
Philip Massinger dies, buried 18 March, in yard of St. Saviour's Church in Bankside as "a stranger"
Aphra Behn, née Johnson,  born in Harbledown, near Canterbury. Baptised, 14 December
Joost van den Vondel converts to Catholicism

D'Avenant and Inigo Jones, Salmacida Spolia, last masque at English court
Joost van den Vondel, Joseph in Egypt

Pierre Corneille, Polyceucte Published:
Ben Jonson, Works, second folio, published, 2 vols., by Bishop, Walkely & Meighen
William Shakespeare, Poems, published by Thomas Cotes and John Benson
Thomas Carew, Poems

James Howell, Dodona’s Grove, or The Vocall Forrest, manual of dendrology
John Parkinson, Theatrum botanicum
Thomas Nabbes, The Unfortunate Mother, play rejected by theatres
Giovanni Giacomo Lando, Aritmetica Mercantile, Venice

Nicolaus Poussin, The Inspiration of the Poet
Rembrandt, Self-Portrait
Adriaen van Ostade, The Barrel Organ Player
Peter Paul Rubens dies
Antoine Coysevox, French sculptor, born, 29 September

John Bull dies 

The (Massachusetts) Bay Psalm Book

Comte de Soissons’ conspiracy against Louis XIII fails
Imperial army defeated at Wolfenbüttel
English Ministers and Judges impeached
Triennial Act passed
"Root and Branch" petition
Treaty of Edinburgh, Scottish troops withdrawn from NE England
Archbiship Laud arrested
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, beheaded
Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke, removed as Lord Chamberlain
Irish revolt in Ulster, October, Protestants massacred and others flee, November
Grand Remonstrance passed by Parliament, November
Diurnal Occurrences, a weekly periodical, first of the "newsbooks" issued in London, November
Protests on the streets of London, December
French settle in Michigan
Théophraste Renaudot publishes plan for free medical treatment of needy in Paris
Henry Dunster becomes president of Harvard College
Dutch capture Malacca from Portugese, establish control of Malay archipelago

Thomas Heywood dies, buried 16 August

Richard Brome’s, The Jovial Crew (last play)
Sir William Berkeley, The Lost Lady, first recorded play in English America, written but not produced

The Heads of Severall Proceedings In This Present Parliament, First English weekly of home news, Nov
René Descartes, Méditations métaphysiques

William Habington, Observations upon Historie
"More Sea" Bible, Revelations 21:1 reads "...and there was more sea"

George Wither, Hallelujah, or Britain’s Second Remembrances, collection of hymns
John Barnard, First Booke of Selected Church Musique
Monteverdi, Il Ritorno d’Ulisse in patria, opera
G. B. Fontana, Sonate for violin, cornetto and bass instruments, first score to list "cello"

Frans Hals, The Governors of St. Elizabeth Hospital
Claude Lorraine, Embarkation of St. Ursula
Nicolas Poussin, The Seven Sacrament
Rembrandt, Manoah
David Teniers, Country Fair
Anthony Van Dyck, Prince William of Orange
Anthony Van Dyck dies

Pope Urban VIII, Universa Per Orbem, reduces annual feast days to 32
Imperial armies defeated at Kempton, Schweitnitz, and Breitenfeld
Cardinal Richelieu dies, 4 December, succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin as first minister
Blaise Pascal builds first adding machine
Galileo Galilei dies, 8 January
Loire-Seine Canal finished
Montreal, Canada, founded by French
Portuguese cede the Gold Coast to the Dutch
Abel Tasman discovers Tasmania and New Zealand
University of Ancona founded
Floods in China kill an estimated 300,000 people
Marie de Medici, mother of Queen Henrietta of England, widow of Henri IV, dies, July

Charles I marches to Westminster to arrest five members of the House of Commons, January
Charles flees with his family to Hampton Court
Sir John Hotham denies the King entry to Hull, April
Essex is appointed to command the parliamentary army, July
Warwick takes command of Navy for parliament, July
Civil War begins with raising of Royal Standard at Nottingham, 22 August
Battle of Edgehill, September
Royalists take Marlborough
Parliamentary forces occupy Winchester
Peace protests in London, December
Isaac Newton born in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, 25 December
Income and property taxes introduced in England

Benjamin Thompson, first native Euro-American poet, born, 14 July
Anne Clarke granted first divorce among English colonists in America in Massachussetts

Parliament closes London theaters, September
Sir John Suckling dies in Paris, possibly a suicide
Molière founds Illustre Théâtre

Pierre Corneille, Le Menteur
James Shirley, The Sisters
Alarcón, La verdad sospechosa

Johann Amos Comenius, A Reformation of Schooles, translated by Samuel Hartlib
Thomas Fuller, The Holy State and the Profane State
Thomas Hobbes, De cive
James Howell, Instruction for Foreign Travel
Thomas Lechford, Plain Dealing, or Newes from New England
Henry Parker, Observations upon some of his Majesties late Answers and Espresses

Rembrandt, The Night Watch
Guido Reni dies

Monteverdi, L’Incoronazione di Poppea given at Teatro di Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice
Marco da Gagliano dies

Parliament establishes Westminster Assembly to discuss a religious settlement, June
Louis XIII of France dies of intestinal tuberculosis;  Louis XIV, age 5, becomes King of France
William Cartwright dies, 29 November
"Solemn League and Covenant" between Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters
"Market Cross," centuries old landmark in Cheapside, destroyed
John Pym dies, December
Ann Hutchinson killed by Native Americans, Long Island, 31 August

Claudio Monteverdi dies

Girolamo Frescobaldi dies

Mercurius Aulicus appears in London, January
Mercurius Britanicus appears as parliament's answer to Aulicus, August
Anonymous, Touching the Fundamental Laws of Politic Constitution of the Kingdom

Théophraste Renaudot forbidden by faculty of medicine to practice in Paris
Manchus capture Peking - Ming Dynasty supplanted by Ch’ing dynasty in China 

Charles I calls Royalist Parliament at Oxford, January
Scots cross Tweed River into Northumberland, entering Civil War
Royalists defeated by Parliamentarians and Scots at Battle of Marston Moor, July
Parliamentary trial of Archbishop Laud
Self-denying Ordinance first suggested, rejected by Lords, December

Connecticut legislatue requires all cattle and swine to be identified by ear-marks or branding. First such law.

Second Globe Theatre demolished
Henry Glapthorne dies

John Milton, Areopagitica
Ephraim Pagitt, Heresiography

Guru Har Govind dies, succeeded as head of Sikhs by his grandson Guru Har Rai
Mali Empire, after long decline, finally destroyed by Bamana invasion

William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, beheaded, 10 January
Peace negotiations at Uxbridge, January and February
Self-denying Ordinance passed, New Model Army formed by Parliamentary ordinance, April
Cromwell defeats Royalist forces under Prince Rupert at Naseby, 14 June
Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, dies

Jeremiah Dummer, American silversmith, born, 14 September

Archduke Leopold Wilhelm becomes governor of the Spanish Netherlands
Gottfried Leibnitz born, 23 June
Won San-Kwei peasant revolt in China

Westminster Confession of Faith drawn up by the Westminster Assembly
English Presbyterian church formally established, March

King Charles flees Oxford
Charles I surrenders to Covenanters outside Newark, Scotland, 5 May, 
Oxford surrenders to parliamentary forces, 1st Civil War ends, June
Episcopacy abolished, October

Virginia settlers' treaty with Powhatan Native Americans, October
Barbados begins export of sugar

Jules Hardouin Mansart, French architect, born, 16 April
Sir Godfrey Kneller, English painter, born, 8 August

Sir John Suckling, posthumous Fragmenta Aurea
Richard Crashaw, Steps to the Temple

Scots surrender Charles I to English Parliament, January
Cornet Joyce seizes king on behalf of New Model Army, June
Army presents Heads of Proposals to King Charles, August
Levellers debate fundamentals of constitution at Putney Church, October
King Charles flees to Isle of Wight, signs Engagement with Scots, November
First American compulsory education act, Massachusetts, 11 November
Achsah Young hung as a witch by Massachusetts Bay Colony
Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque born
Peter Stuyvesant arrives in New Amsterdam as new director general of New Netherlands


Beaumont and Fletcher, Comedies and Tragedies
Mercurius Pragmaticus, Pro-Royalist newspaper edited by Nedham, Cleveland, and Sheppard 
Treaty of Westphalia ends Thirty Years War, October
Bohdan Chmielnicki leads Cossack Rising in Poland
Kung Shang-jen born
Yellow Fever, possibly imported from Africa, breaks out in Cuba
Jewish diaspora anticipates arrival of Messiah
St. Joseh Calasanz dies 

Charles I signs engagement with dissident Scottish nobles, launches 2nd Civil War, April
Scots invade England, July
Battle of Preston, Second Civil War ends, August
Treaty of Newport, September
"Pride's Purge" creates "The Rump Parliament," December

Gabriel Téllez, a.k.a. "Tirso de Molina," author of El Burlador de Seville, dies

Milton,  The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, urging Parliament to try the King
John Hill, A History of the Materia Medica
The Moderate,
Radical newspaper edited by chief censor Gilbert Mabbott

Charles I put on trial for treason by Parliament, 19 January
Charles I beheaded, 30 January
Proclamation of a successor declared treasonable
Charles II declared King of Scotland, February
Elihu Yale born, 5 April
Richard Brandon, Charles’ executioner, dies, 20 June
Oliver Cromwell leads army against Irish Confederates, brutally suppresses revolt
John Milton appointed Secretary of Foreign Tongues to Parliament
Diggers occupy St. George Hill in Surrey, 1 April
Leveller mutiny in the Army, May
Parliament passes stringent law limiting press, September
Robert Crashaw dies, 21 August
Susanna Shakespeare Hall dies, 11 July

Fortune Theatre dismantled
Salisbury Court Theatre demolished
Suppression of all stage plays begins, 20 December

Gerrard Winstanley, A Letter to Lord Fairfax

King William II of Holland dies, 27 October

Père Brébeuf and other Jesuits, later "Patron Saints," executed in Canada, 19 October
Cromwell returns from Ireland, May
James Graham, Marquis of Montrose, hanged in Edinburgh, 21 May
Cromwell succeeds Fairfax as commander-in-chief of Commonwealth armed forces, June
Charles II lands in Scotland, June
Blasphemy Act passed by parliament, aimed at Ranters, August
Cromwell defeats Scottish forces at Dunbar, 3 September
Jeremy Collier born
Philip Herbert, 4th Earl of Pembroke, dies
Chattel slavery legally recognized in Virginia
First coffee house in London opens
The minuet introduced at the French court

Thomas May dies, 13 December

Guercino,  The Vocation of San Luigi Gonzago

Henry Vaughan, Silex Scintillans
Richard Baxter, The Saint's Everlasting Rest
Marchmont Nedham starts publishing Mercurius Politicus and The Publick Intelligencer

Jean Baptist de La Salle born

Charles II crowned King of Scotland at Scone, January

Scots invade England, defeated at Battle of Worcester, September
Charles II flees to France
Parliament imposes 270% duty on foreign sugar to protect West Indies producers

Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
John Playford, The English Dancing Master: or., Plaine and Easie Rules for the Dancing of Country Dances, with the Tune to each Dance
George Herbert, Jacula Prudentium 

England and United Dutch Provinces go to war over trade disputes, May
Irish Settlement Act begins land confiscations in Ireland, August

Inigo Jones, architect, dies, 21 June
Artemisia Gentileschi, painter, dies in Naples

Thomas Otway, playwright, born
Richard Brome, playwright, dies
Young men forbidden to perfom in Kabuki theatre by Tokugawa shogunate

George Herbert, A Priest to the Temple

Peaant war erupts in Switzerland

Prince George, later Queen Anne’s consort, born, 22 April

John Oldham born, 9 August
Cromwell dissolves Rump Parliament, April
Nominated Assembly, "Barebones Parliament," meets, July
Dutch defeated at Battle of Texel, July
Oliver Cromwell installed as Lord Protector under The Instrument of Government, December

First municipal police force in America established, New Amsterdam, 12 August
Dutch settlers build De Waal to protect New Amsterdam from British attack. Later called "Wall Street"

John Taylor, "The Water Poet," dies

Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Japanese playwright, born
Nathaniel Lee, English playwright, born

Richard Brome, Five New Plays
"Unrighteous Bible" published in Cambridge with misprints in I Cor 6:9 and Romans 6:13

Rembrandt van Rijn,  Aristotle with a Bust of Homer
Arcangelo Corelli born

Charles X becomes King of Sweden
Accidental explosion of secret powder magazine destroys a quarter of Delft, thousands die, 12 October

Union of Scotland and England, April
Treaty of Westminster with United Provinces, April
First Protectorate Parliament meets, September
Davenant pardoned by Cromwell
Hispaniola expedition launched to West Indies, December
Dutch ousted from Recife, transferring sugar production to Carribean 
First Jews arrive in New Amsterdam from Recife.  Peter Stuyvessant orders them to leave.

Nicodemus Tessin II, Swedish architect, born, 23 May
Carel Fabritius, Dutch painter, student of Rembrandt, killed in Delft explosion
Hendrickje Stoffels convicted of fornication with Rembrandt, the father of her child.  His career is ruined.

Joost van der Vondel, Lucifer. Performances banned by Dutch church authorities
Agustín Moreto, El desdén con el desdén

Duke of Savoy commands the Waldensians to attend Mass or remove to the upper valleys of their homeland,   January
Duke of Savoy gives signal for a general massacre of Waldensians known as the Piedmont Easter.  24 April at 4 a.m.

Martinique begins sugar planting, Haiti resumes sugar planting

Oliver Cromwell dismisses parliament, January

Penruddock’s Rising fails to overthrow Cromwell
English naval forces fail to take Hispaniola, but capture Jamaica instead, May
Civil war between Maryland's Catholics and Puritans ends, 25 March
Suppression of unofficial newsbooks in London, October
Major-Generals introduced to rule provinces and military, October
Jews effectively readmitted to Britain, December

William Shakespeare, The Rape of Lucrece, published by John Harrison, last edition in 17th century

Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italian piano maker, born, 4 May
Johann Christoph Denner, German oboe maker, born, 13 August

John IV of Portugal dies, 6 November, succeeded by Alfonso VI
Christian Huygens builds first pendulum driven clock
Benedict Spinoza excommunicated by Jewish authorities in Amsterdam, 27 July
Grand Hôpital de Paris founded to hold poor, mad and delinquent
Plague outbreak in Genoa
Swedish Riksbank founded in Stockholm
Spanish silver convoy lost returning from Americas

Oliver Cromwell declares war on Spain, makes peace with France
First Quakers arrive in America, Boston, 1 July
Second Protectorate Parliament meets, September
The Quaker James Nayler enters Bristol in imitation of Christ, October

Massachussetts Colony enacts ordinance forbidding harboring a Quaker, 14 October

The Hope Theatre demolished

Davenant produces The Seige at Rhodes at Rutland House

Edward Archer,  "An Exact and perfect CATALOGUE of all the PLAIES 
    that were ever printed; . . ." listing 622 titles.
James Harrington, The Commonwealth of Oceana
Sir William Dugdale, Antiquities of Warwickshire, describes Stratford's church and Shakespeare monument
Blaise Pascal, under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, publishes the first of his Lettres provinciales
Blount's Glossographia

Cromwell declines Parliament's offer of the crown, May
Second, more ceremonial, inauguration of Cromwell, June
Admiral Robert Blake dies, 7 August
John Dennis born
Bernard Fontenelle, last of "Les Précieux," born in Rouen, 11 February
French entrepreneur opens London’s first chocolate shop, serving it as a flavored drink.
Thatch roofs prohibited in New Amsterdam as fire hazard

Peeter van Bloemen, Flemish painter, born, 17 January
Pierre Etienne Monnot, French sculptor, born, 11 August

Second Protectorate Parliament reconvenes, January
Oliver Cromwell dies, 3 September
James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, in Annals of the Old and New Testament
    establishes that the world was created at 9:00 a.m. on October 23, 4004 BC (GMT, o.s. presumably)

Nicolas Coustou, French sculptor, born, 9 January
Camillo Rusconi, Italian sculptor, born 14 July

Plays Produced:
Davenant produces "operas" at Cockpit Theatre, including The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru

Phillips' Dictionary


Mughal emperor Aurangzeb tries and executes his brother, and rival, Dara Shikoh for heresy
Richard Cromwell calls a parliament, January - April
Richard Cromwell resigns, May
Collapse of the Republic, restoration of the Rump Parliament, May
John Cleveland dies, 29 April
Army expells purged parliament, Monck condemns action and marches south, October
General Council of Army recalls the purged parliament, December

First British "cheque" signed by Nicholas van Acker to a Mr. Delboe, drawn on Messrs Morris and Clayton, scriveners and bankers of the City of London, 16 February

Adriaen van der Werff, Dutch painter, born, 21 January
Hyacinthe Rigaud, French painter, born, 18 July

Henry Purcel born

Plays produced:
Molière, Les Précieuses Ridicules
Nicolaus Avancini, Pietas victrix sive Flavius Constantinus Magnus de Maxentio Tyranno vicotor
    staged in Vienna

John Dryden, Heroic Stanzas, commemorating the death of Cromwell
Humphrey Moseley publishes The Last Remains of Sir John Suckling

Samuel Pepys makes first entry in his Diary, 1 January
General George Monck arrives in London, readmits the secluded members of Long Parliament, February
Long Parliament dissolves itself, March
Declaration of Breda establishes terms for the Restoration, April
General Lambert's uprising at Edgehill fails, April
Charles II restored to throne, enters London, 14 May
Charles II's dog is stolen, July
Charles II supresses Milton's Latin pamphlets Defense of the English People, 13 August
John Milton's books burned in London, 27 August
Andrew Marvell, MP from Hull, petitions House of Commons for release of John Milton, 17 December
Navigation Act regulates commerce with British colonies
Company of Royal Adventurers in Africa supersedes Royal African Companies
Samuel Pepys drinks his first cup of tea, 25 September

Sugar exports exceed indigo exports from St. Kitts

René Descartes dies, 11 February
Saint Vincent de Paul dies, 27 September

Theatrical patents granted Killegrew to form the King’s and Davenant to form the Duke of York’s Companies
Davenant opens Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre
First appearance of a British actress on stage in London, probably in the role of Desdemona in Othello

John Dryden, Astraea Redux celebrating the restoration of Charles II

Allessandro Scarlatti born
Johann Kuhnau, pioneer clavier composer, born

Charles II of Spain born, 11 November
Guru Har Rai, head of Sikhs, dies

James Harrington arrested and sent to The Tower, 28 December

Isaac Newton admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge
Willi Leddra executed in New England for being a Quaker, 24 March

Pepys's diary notes women on London stage, 3 January
L'Academie Nationale de la Danse founded in France to encourage ballet

Davenant produces adaptation of Hamlet at Lincoln’s Inn Field
The Princess; or, Love at First Sight, Thomas Killigrew

Plays Published:
Molière, L’École des maris, first play whose publication he supervised
Tom Tyler and his Wife, reprinted in archaic black letter

Bombay ceded by Portugal to England as part of dowry of Catherine of Braganza
Last confirmed sighting of a Dodo bird on island of Mauritius
Princess Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, later Queen Mary II born, 30 April
British Royal Society established
John Dryden elected to Royal Society
Last silverr pennies and last unmilled coins minted in London

Blaise Pascal dies at convent of Port Royal, 19 August

Church of England,  revised Book of Common Prayer
Agustín Moreto, El lindo don Diego
William Petty,  A Treatise on Taxes and Contributions
T. Fuller, The History of the Worthies of England

John Dryden marries Lady Elizabeth Howard
King Charles II visits Christ Church, Oxford

Killigrew moves his company from Vere Street Theatre to Theatre Royal in Bridges Street

Pierre Corneille, Works
Edward Lord Herbert of Cherbury, De Religione Gentilium
Marchamont Nedham, A Discourse concerning Schools
Indian Bible, first Bible printed in America, in Massachusetts Native American dialect

Guru Har Krishan dies, ending direct line of Sikh succession; Teg Bahadur succeeds as leader
Dutch establish sovereignty over Indrapura in Sumatra

Second Dutch War begins between Britain and United Provinces
British troops seize New Netherlands, 8 September
Company of Royal Adventurers into Africa reorganized as Royal Company of Adventurers Trading into Africa, with first explicit mention of slave trading in charter
Catherine Philips dies, 22 June

Sugar cultivation begins in Jamaica

Samuel Pepys attends Macbeth, calls it a "pretty good play," 6 November
Sir John Vanbrugh born, 24 January

John Dryden, The Rival Ladies
Dryden and Howard, The Indian Queen
Davenant produces The Rivals, an adaptation of The Two Noble Kinsmen
Etherege, The Comical Revenge or Love in a Tub (1st play), Lincoln’s Inn Fields, March
Joost van den Vondel, Adam in Exile

Mundus Subterraneus, Athanasius Kircher,  suggests tides caused by water moving to and from a subterranean ocean
Thomas Mun, England's Treasure by Forraign Trade, or the Balance of our Forraign Trade is The Rule of Our Treasure

Princess Anne, daughter of James, Duke of York, later Queen Anne, born, 6 February
Edmund Halley born, 29 October
Great plague strikes London, King Charles II moves Court to Oxford
Newton discovers generalized binomial theorem, leaves Cambridge to avoid plague, begins study at home
Journal des scavans begun, first French magazine
Oxford Gazette, pioneer English newspaper begins publication
Royal Society begins publishing Philosophical Transactions


John Dryden, The Indian Emperor
Orrery, Mustapha
First "play" in Anglo-American colonies: Ye Bare and Ye Cubb, Fowkes' Tavern, Accomac City, Virginia
Suleiman I of Turkey dies, 5 September
Dutch conquer Padang province in Sumatra

Great Fire of London begins, 2 September, burns for four days
James Shirley and his wife, fleeing fire, die
Nicholas Barbon opens office to sell first fire insurance policies in wake of London fire
The Pentland Rising in Scotland ends in massacre at Rullion Green, November
Sir James Ware dies, 1 December

Robert Le Lorrain, French sculptor, born, 15 November

Cockpit Theatre in Drury Lane demolished

Turks occupy Crete
Pope Alexander VII dies, 22 May

Abraham Cowley dies in Chertsey, 28 July, interred in Westminster Abbey
Jonathan Swift born in Dublin, 30 November
John Arbuthnot born near Bervie, Kincardineshire, 29 April
Lord Clarendon resigns as Chancellor of Oxford, leaves for France
Second Dutch War ends
Germain Boffrand, French architect, born, 7 May

John Dryden, Annus Mirabilis
John Milton sells copyright to Paradise Lost to Samuel Simmons,  27 April
Paradise Lost published, 1 August
Thomas Sprat, The History of the Royal Society

Jean Racine, Andromaque, his first tragedy, performed at Hôtel de Bourgogne, Paris
Davenant and Dryden, The Tempest; or, The Enchanted Island
John Dryden, Secret Love

Francesco Borromini dies of self inflicted sword wound, August 3


Giambattista Vico born, 23 June
Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt, Austrian architect, born, 14 November
Giornale de’letterati, edited by Francesco Nazzari, first Italian magazine

John Dryden named Poet Laureate

Sir William D’Avenant dies, 7 April

John Dryden, "Essay of Dramatic Poesy"

George Etherege, She Would if She Could, Lincoln’s Inn Fields
John Dryden, An Evening's Love
Charles Sedley, The Mulberry Garden

Ottomans take Crete from Venice
Mount Etna erupts in Sicily - 20,000 killed

British East India Co. begins importing tea from China by way of Dutch colony at Batavia
Judith Shakespeare Quiney, playwright's daughter, buried, 9 February
Newton elected Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge, but avoids being ordained

Rembrandt van Rijn dies in Amsterdam

Augustín Moreto, Spanish playright, dies
French clergy lift ban on Molière’s Tartuffe, written five years earlier

Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Florence dies, succeeded by his son Cosimo III
Johann Amos Comenius dies in Amsterdam, November (b. 1592)

William Clement builds improved pendulum clock in London
Minute hands appear on watches for the first time
Elizabeth Hall Nash Barnard, William Shakespeare’s last known descendent, dies, 17 February

William Congreve born at Bardsey, near Leeds, baptised 10 February 

John Dryden, The Conquest of Granada, Part 1 

Turlough O'Carolan, Irish musician and composer, born  ( d. 1738 )

Blaise Pascal, Pensées

Leibnitz constructs first calculating machine capable of multiplication and division
John Law born in Edinburgh

Colly Cibber born in London, 6 November

The Duke of Buckingham, The Rehearsal
John Dryden, Marriage à-la-Mode
Joseph Arrowsmith, The Reformation

John Dryden, Marriage à la Mode, and Conquest of Granada, Part 2
John Milton, Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes published, early in the year
Jane Sharp, The Midwives’ Book, first book of its kind
Li Yü, A Temporary Lodge for My Leisure Thoughts, founds Chinese dramatic criticism

Peter the Great of Russia born, 30 May
Mawlay Isma'il consolidates 'Alawi rule in Morocco Jasper Mayne dies, 6 December
Archibald Armstrong, Fool to James I, buried, Arthuret, Cumberland, 1 April
Gilles Marie Oppenord, French architect, born, 27 July
Joseph Addison born in Milston, Wiltshire, 1 May
King Charles II issues "Declaration of Indulgence" permitting licensing of Dissenters’ worship
Donneau de Vise founds Mercure Galant, pioneering light popular magazine format 
The Royal African Company founded to promote British slave trade
English seize Virgin Islands from Dutch
Sir Isaac Newton builds first reflecting telescope
Anne Bradstreet, pioneer American poetess, dies, 16 September

Theatre Royal in Bridges Street destroyed by fire

Heinrich Schütz, German composer, dies

Calderón, Cuarta Parte

French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet explore the Mississippi River as far south as Arkansas

English Parliament passes First Test Act, designed to bar Catholics from public office
Dutch recapture New Amsterdam from British, 9 August

Thomas Killigrew appointed Master of Revels
Molière collapses during perfomance of La Malade Imaginaire and dies soon after, 17 February


Plays Published:
Henry Herringman publishes Davenant's plays in one volume

C. Naulot, “Nouveau Traité des Changes Étranges Qui Se Sont dans le Principles Places de l’Europe,” 
in M. Jacques dur Puys, L’Art des Lettres de Changes, Brussels

John Milton dies, 8 November (?), buried in St. Giles, Cripplegate, 12 November
Dutch cede New Amsterdam to British, 10 November
Jethro Tull, pioneer British agronomist, born
Isaac Watts born, 17 July
Thomas Traherne dies, 27 September

Theatre Royal Drury Lane opens

Giacomo Carissimi, Italian composer, dies

Jan Vermeer dies, 15 December

Guru Teg Bahadur, leader of Sikhs, executed by Aurangzeb; his son Guru Govind Singh succeeds him
Peasant uprisings in Bordeaux and Brittany

Charles II commissions the Royal Greenwich Observatory, 4 May
Newton, in Hypothesis of Light, posits the existence of the ether

John Bunyan imprisoned

Rosalba Carriera, Italian painter, born, 7 October

Edward Phillips, Theatrum Poetarum, biographical history of the English stage

William Wycherley, The Country Wife



Robert Walpole born at Houghton Hall, Norfolk, 26 August
Frances Wolfreston, earliest collector of Shakespeare editions, dies.  Her collection is auctioned in 1856

King Philip leads war by Narragansetts against New England settlers, defeated and killed 12 August
Nathaniel Bacon leads revolt against Virginia Governor Berkeley, Jamestown burnt, 23 executed
Quaker William Edmundson makes first public attack in America on slavery, Newport, RI

Etherege, The Man of Mode, or Sir Fopling Flutter, at Dorset Garden Theater, March
Thomas Shadwell, The Virtuoso

Elisha Coles, An English Dictionary Explaining Difficult Terms

Pietro Fransesco Cavalli, Venetian opera composer, dies

Benedict Spinoza dies, The Hague, 21 February
Princess Mary, daughter of James, Duke of York, marries Prince William of Orange
James Harrington dies at Westminster, 11 September

Andrew Marvel anonymously publishes An Account of the Growth of Popery

John Dryden, All for Love
Aphra Behn, The Rover
Jean Racine, Phèdre

The London Gazette offers a reward for the author of An Account of the Growth of Popery
Andrew Marvell dies in London, 29 July? or 16 August
Titus Oates launches Popish Plot
Bolingbroke born, 1 October

Louis Hennepin becomes first European to see Niagara Falls

Antonio Vivaldi born

Filippo Juvara, Italian architect, born, 27 March

John Bunyon, Pilgrim’s Progress, 18 February

First engineering use of explosives, Malpas Tunnel of the Canal du Midi in France

Archbishop James Sharp murdered by Scottish Covenanters, 3 May
James, Duke of Monmouth, defeats Covenanters at Bothwell Brig
Danby impeached, Exclusion crisis breaks
Parliament passes first "Exclusion Bill" forbidding James, Duke of York’s, succession
John Dryden set upon by Rochester's men outside the Lamb and Cross, 18 December

John Tillotson, Of the Trial of the Spirits

Peasant uprising in Bohemia
Jean Baptist de La Salle founds the "Frères des écoles chrétiennes" in France

Nicholas Barbon establishes England's first fire insurance company, "The Fire Office"
John Wilmott, Earl of Rochester, dies, 26 July

Comédie Française founded in Paris

Thomas Otway, The Soldier's Fortune

Ottomans cede Kiev to Russia
Francesco Morosini elected Doge of Venice

Parliament passes second "Exclusion Bill"

Georg Philip Telemann born
Andreas Werckmeister publishes Orgel-Probe on organ tuning

John Dryden anonymously publishes Absalom and Achitophel,  17 November
The Annals of King James and King Charles the First, London

First "tornado" witnessed by Anglo-American settlers, New Haven, CT, 10 June
Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle travels down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico
     calls territory "Louisiana" and claims it for France, 9 April

John Dryden, MacFlecknoe
William Petty, Quantulumcunque concerning money: To the Lord Marquis of Halifax

Aphra Behn, The False Count

James Gibbs, English architect, born, 23 December



Ottomans recapture Iraq from Safavid Persians
Austrians and Poles repulse Ottoman Turks at Vienna, 12 September
Viennese baker invents "croissant" in celebration of victory
Polish adventurer opens first Viennese, and European, coffehouse, introduces bügel (later "bagel")
Queen Marie Therése of France dies, 30 July

Isaak Walton dies at Winchester, 15 December
The Rye House Plot impeaches several Republicans, including Algernon Sidney
Algernon Sydney beheaded, 7 December
William Penn signs peace treaty with Leni-Lennape tribe, purchases land in Pennsylvania, 23 June

Thomas Killigrew dies, 19 March

Chikamatsu Monzaemon, The Soga Successors written

Christop Cellarius (Keller), Universal History Divided into an Ancient, Medieval, and New Period

Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, builds outposts in what are now Illinois and Texas

Leibnitz begins publishing accounts of his calculus
Sir Aston Cokayne dies, 13 February

Bishop Berkeley born, 12 March

Pierre Corneille dies in Paris, 1 October

Antoine Watteau born, 10 October 

Philipp Wilhelm von Hornick, Austria Over All, If She Only Will

Hakuin, founder of modern Japanese Zen Buddhism, born
Yellow Fever outbreak in Brazil

Charles II dies, 6 February, James II succeeds to throne
Duke of Monmouth defeated at Sedgemoor by forces loyal to James II, later executed
Earl of Argyll’s uprising against James II defeated in Scotland; MacKeevers et al flee
British establish themselves at Benkulen in Sumatra

George Frederic Handel born in Halle-an-der-Salle, Saxony, 23 February
Johann Sebastian Bach born in Eisenach, Thuringia, 21 March
Dominico Scarlatti born, 26 October

John Gay born at Barnstaple, Devonshire, 30 June

Dominikus Zimmerman, German architect, born, 30 June

Plays Produced:
William Wycherley, The Plain Dealer, at Court, 14 December
Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Kagekiuyo Victorious, by Takemoto Gidayus’ Puppet theater

James II launches program of full equality for Catholics

Jean Baptiste Oudry, French painter, born, 17 March

"The Wicked Prayer Book," The Fourteenth Sunday after Trinity reads:— “Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these: adultery, fornication, uncleanness, idolatry … they who do these things shall inherit the kingdom of God.” 

Andreas Werckmeister, Musicae mathematicae hodegus curiosus oder Richtiger Musicalischer Weg-Weiser 
Nicholas Venette, Tableau de l'amour conjugal, pioneer illustrated sex manual

French explorer Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, killed in mutiny, 19 March

John Alden, last survivor of the Mayflower Pilgrims, dies, 12 September
James II issues "Declaration of Indulgence"
Edmund Waller  died at his house in St James's Street, London, 21 October
Antiquarian William Stukeley born at Holbeach, Lincolnshire, 7 November
The word "machinery" is coined, meaning devices for creating stage effects
First recorded sale by auction of a Shakespeare First Folio, by William and Henry Coventry of Haymarket, London

Jean Baptiste Lully dies

Balthasar Neumann, German architect, born, 30 January

Isaac Newton, Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica
John Dryden,The Hind and the Panther, announcing his conversion to Catholicism

Alexander Pope born in London, 21 May
James Francis Edward Stuart, son to James II (?), later "Old Pretender," born, 10 June
John Bunyan dies at a friend's house in Holborn, 31 August; buried in Bunhill Fields
William of Orange lands at Torbay in Devon
Philippe Quinault dies, 26 November
James II escapes to France, 23 December
Four Germantown, Pennsylvania, Quakers sign protest against slavery as violation of  the "Golden Rule."
Physician Johannes Hofer coins word "nostalgia" to describe extreme homesickness of Swiss mercenaries

John Smibert, American painter, born, 24 March

Francois Couperin-le-Grand born


José de la Vega, Confusiòn de confusiones

Warsaw becomes seat of Polish government
Charles de Montesquieu born, 18 January
Russian and Chinese agree to Treaty of Nertchinsk, 7 September
Jesuit priest Jean Richaud.first recognizes the binary nature of Alpha Centauri, December

English Parliament offers crown to William of Orange and Mary Stuart, 13 February
Scottish "Convention" publishes "Claim of Right," giving Scottish crown to William and Mary, 11 April
Convention Parliament passes Bill of Rights
Toleration Act grants rights of religious assembly but no civil equality to Dissenters
James II lands at Kinsale in Ireland, but is kept out of Londonderry by the "Apprentice Boys"

Aphra Behn dies in London, 16 April

Purcel’s Dido and Aeneas, first English opera
Jean Racine, Esther, written after twelve year self-exile from the theatre

John Locke, Letter Concerning Toleration

Chinese Emperor K'ang Hsi establishes lay Jesuits Belleville and Gherrardini as court artists.
    Perspective introduced to Chinese painting.

James II defeated at Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, 1 July
French physicist Denis Papin invents pressure cooker, speculates about steam power 
Publick Occurences, first American "newspaper," publishes one issue in Boston, immediately suppressed

Nicolas Lancret, French painter, born, 22 January

Andreas Werkmeister invents "equal temperament" tuning for the harpsichord

Benjamin Colman’s Gustavus Vaso performed at Harvard College

Dalby Thomas, Historical Account of the West Indies

George Etherege dies, sometime between 1691-93
Robert Boyle dies, 7 January
George Fox dies, 13 January

Jean Racine, Athalie, his last major work for the theatre

Sir Dudley North, Discourses upon Trade

Jacob Tonson pays Dryden 30 guineas for Cleomenes
Andreas Werckmeister, Musicalische Temperatur on tempered tuning
Glencoe massacre of Scottish Highlanders, 13 February
Thomas Shadwell dies in Chelsea, 19 November, possibly of opium overdose

Bridget Bishop hanged for witchcraft in Salem (now Danvers), Massachusetts, 10 June
Two men and seven women executed in Salem for witchcraft, 22 September
Max Erhmann's inspirational Desiderata NOT found in Old St. Paul's Church, Baltimore

Thomas Southerne, The Wives' Excuse

Ben Jonson, Works, third folio, editors unknown

Earthquake in Catania, Italy, 11 January, 60,000 killed
Saint Paul of the Cross born

Ladies’ Mercury,
first women’s magazine, founded in London

Newton publishes first accounts of his work with calculus
William Caslon, typefounder, born in Cradley, Worcestershire, 23 April
John Aubrey deposits the manuscript of his Lives in the Ashmolean Museum

Georg Raphael Donner, Austrian sculptor, born, 24 May
Michael Rysbrack, English sculptor, born, 24 June

Francesco Morosini, Doge of Venice, dies, succeeded by Silvestro Valier
Voltaire, François Marie Arouet, born in Paris, 21 November
Pierre Jean Mariette, French print publisher, born, 7 May
Scaramouche dies, 8 December <Parliament incorporates Bank of England
Lord Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, born in London, 22 September
Hugh the Elder Chamberlen, practicing obstetrics in Scotland, publishes a book that first advocates health insurance 

Thomas Hyde, De ludis orientalibus libri duo, about Indian chess

King William grants large estates in Ireland to Lady Orkney for foeda labiorum ministeria
Irish Parliament passes first "Penal Laws" against Catholics
Jean de la Fontaine dies, 13 March
Jonathan Swift ordained an Anglican priest in Ireland, given prebent of Kilroot, 13 January
Anthony à Wood dies in Oxford, 29 November

Second Lincoln's Inn Fields theatre built, Congreve manages company there

"A Merchant," A Discourse of the General Notions of Money, Trade, and Exchange, As They Stand in Relations to Each Other

Jean Baptiste Pater, French painter, born, 29 December

Henry Purcell dies, 21 November
Johann Kuhnau publishes Frische Klavier Früchte, including six "sonatas"

James Edward Oglethorpe born, 22 December
Captain William Kidd begins career as pirate
Saint Alphonsus Mary de' Liguori born in Naples
Famine in Finland begins, will claim a quarter to a third of population

Isaac Newton takes up post of warden of Royal Mint

Laurent Delvaux, Flemish sculptor, born, 17 January
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo born, 5 March

William Petty, Political Arithmetick
Thevenot, The Art of Swimming, first describes the breast stroke
Francois Bertrand De Barreme, Le Grand Banquier ou le Livre des Monnoyes Etrangères Reduits en Monnoyes de France, Paris

John Vanbrugh, The Relapse
Colly Cibber, Love's Last Shift

Abbé Provost born, 1 April
Outspoken atheist Thomas Aikenhead hanged in Edinburgh,
         last British execution for "blasphemy," 8 January

Trinity Church, first Anglican church in New York City, chartered.
Treaty of Ryswick establishes French colony of Saint Domingue, later Haiti
John Aubrey dies

William Hogarth born in London, 10 November
Canaletto born, 18 October
Cornelius Troost, Dutch painter, born, 8 October

John Vanbrugh, The Provok'd Wife
William Congreve, The Mourning Bride 

Pierre Bayle, Dictionnaire historique et critique 

Dom Perignon pioneers sparkling carbonated wine called "Champagne"

Edme Bouchardon, French sculptor, born, 29 May
Giovanni Battista Natali III, Italian painter, born, 14 October

First Anglo-American songbook containing some non-religious songs
Jeremy Collier, A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage

Venice concludes peace treaty with Turks at Karlowitz, Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria
French establish settlements in Louisiana and Mississippi
Gottfried Prehauser born in Vienna

Isaac Newton promoted to Master of Royal Mint

De Waal, old Dutch defense, torn down in New York.  Wall Street remains in its place.

Hubert Gravelot, French illustrator, born 26 March
Giovanni Antonio Guardi, Italian painter, born, 27 May
Jean Baptiste Chardin born, 2 November

James Wright, An Historical Account of the English Stage

Anglo-Irish actor Charles Macklin born Cathal MacLochlainn, Culdaff, Inishowen, County Donegal, Ireland

George Farquhar, The Constant Couple, or A Trip to the Jubilee

Pacific NW of America experiences massive earthquake; tsunami in Japan ensues, 26 January
Silvestro Valier, Doge of Venice, dies

Pope Innocent XII dies, 27 September, Gian Francesco Albani becomes Pope Clement XI
Treaty with Emperor Leopold I recognizes Elector Frederick III of Brandenberg King of Prussia
Charles II, last Hapsburg King of Spain dies, 1 November
"Wars of the Spanish Succession" follow between Bourbon Philip IV, and the Hapsburgs

Approximate Population Figures (in millions):
     England and Scotland: 7.5
     France: 19
     Hapsburg dominions: 7.5
     Spain: 6

William, Duke of Gloucester, son of Princess Anne and heir apparent, dies
Succession passes to the Electress Sophia of Hanover, mother of the Elector Prince
Daniel Bernoulli born, 9 February
John Dryden dies, 1 May

Luigi Vanvitelli, Italian architect, born, 12 May

Plays produced:
Colly Cibber’s adaptation of Shakespeare’s Richard III
William Congreve, The Way of the World, opens, but is not successful.
Mary Pix, The Beau Defeated
Thomas Betterton's version of Shakespeares Henry IV  at Lincolns-Inn-Fields

Samuel Sewall, The Selling of Joseph, first American anti-Slave protest
Thomas Hyde, Historia religionis veterum Persarum
Lewis Roberts, The Merchant’s Map of Commerce, 4th Edition, London

Sir Charles Sedley dies at his home near Hampstead, 20 August
James II dies in France, September
"Queen Anne's War" with France begins
Captain William Kidd hanged in London for piracy
Isaac Newton resigns his duties at Cambridge to concentrate on his work as Master of Royal Mint

Charles Povey, The Unhappiness of England

John Gay begins apprenticeship to London silk merchant
First English daily newspaper, The Daily Courant, begins publication in Fleet Street, 11 March

Francesco Zuccarelli, Italian painter, born, 15 August

Students at Virginia's William and Mary College perform a "pastoral colloquy" for the colonial governor

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Sunni religious reformer and founder of Wahhabism, born
François Boucher born, 29 September 

Samuel Pepys dies at a friend's country house in Clapham, 26 May
John Wesley born at Epworth, Lincolnshire, 17 June
Jonathan Edwards born, 5 October
Daniel Defoe pilloried in front of Temple Bar for writing The Shortest Way with Dissenters;
      sympathetic crowd pelts him with flowers instead of fruit, 31 July
Massachusetts colonial assembly offers £40 reward for each captured Indian scalp

Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Love Suicides at Sonezaki

English actor Anthony "Tony" Aston performs in New York, first recorded stage professional in colonies

Saint Jean-Baptiste de la Salle, Rules of Decorum in Christian Civility, condemns reading in bed!

Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeat the French at Blenheim, 2 August
Native Americans  attack Deerfield, Massachusetts, 29 February
John Locke dies at Oates, home of Sir Francis Masham in High Laver, Essex, 28 October

Jean Baptiste Lemoyne, French sculptor, born, 15 February
Maurice Quentin de Latour born, 5 September

Isaac Newton, Opticks
Andrew Fletcher?, Proposals for the Reformation of Schools
John Harris, Lexicon Technicum: or, an Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. (encyclopedia)
Boston News Letter, first regular newspaper in America, started by John Campbell, postmaster
Bernard Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, first edition 

English import duty on foreign sugar increased from 270% to 340%
Queen Anne knights Isaac Newton in recognition of his reforms at the Royal Mint


Jacques François Blondel, French architect, born, 8 January
Michel-Ange Slodtz, French sculptor, born, 27 September

Aristotle, The Poetics, first English translation, from a French version

Benjamin Franklin born in Boston, 17 January
John Baskerville, English printer and font designer, born, 28 January

George Farquhar, The Recruiting Officer

Mughal emperor Aurangzeb dies
Carolus Linnaeus, naturalist and taxonomer, born in Råshult, Sweden, 23 May
Christoph (Keller) Cellarius, historian, dies, 4 June

Act of Union creates "United Kingdom" of England, Scotland and Ireland
Charles Wesley born, Epworth, Lincolnshire, 18 December
Henry Fielding born in Somerset, near Glastonbury, 22 April

George Farquhar dies

George Farquhar, The Beaux’ Stratagem

First Church of the Brethren baptisms near Schwartznau in Palatinate
Guru Govind Singh, tenth leader of Sikhs, assassinated

Skeleton discovered in secret vault beneath Minster Lovell, believed that of Francis Lovell, henchman to Richard III, missing since 1485

Pompeo Batoni, Italian painter, born, 25 January

Jean-Francois Regnard, Le Legataire universel, features witty valet, foreshadowing Beaumarchais et al

Louis XIV closes the Port Royal monastery
British-Colonial troops capture Port Royal, Nova Scotia, from French
Governor’s Council of New York forbids all "play acting and prize fighting"
Samuel Johnson born in Lichfield, Staffordshire, 18 September
First British "Copyright Act" enacted
Bank of England declared only English bank allowed to operate on a joint-stock basis

Florentine harpsichord maker Bartolomeo Cristofori invents the "pianoforte"

Nicholas Rowe, Works of Shakespeare, 1st Edition, including first "authoritative" biography
Richard Steele publishes first issue of The Tatler, 12 April
Isaac Littlebury's first English translation of Herodotus' Histories

Lesage, Turcaret, another witty valet

Congreve, Works
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, Théodicée

Addison and Steele begin publishing The Spectator
Queen Anne establishes Ascot Races
Malborough dismissed as Commander-in-Chief
South-Sea Company founded by the Harley Earl of Oxford, et al
David Hume born in Edinburgh, 26 April
Jupiter Hammon, first published American black poet, born, 17 October

Josef Stranitzky takes over Kärntnertortheater in Vienna

Jonathan Swift, The Conduct of Allies
Alexander Pope, Essay on Criticism
Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury, Charteristics of Men, Manners, Opinons, and Societies 

Jane Wenham hanged, last English execution for witchcraft, accused of flying and talking to her cat
Sir Hans Sloane purchases the manor of Chelsea from the Cheyne family

Thomas Newcomen invents steam-driven pump to  remove water from mines:

Jean-Jacques Rousseau born, 28 June

Saint Petersburg becomes capital of Russia

Slave revolts in New York begin, 6 April, six blacks commit suicide, twenty-one are executed in aftermath

Addison and Steele publish the last issue of The Spectator, 6 December
Alexander Pope, The Rape of the Lock
Jonathan Swift, A Proposal for Correcting the English Language

Swift, Pope, Congreve et al found "The Scriblers Club"
Laurence Sterne born in Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland, 24 November
Denis Diderot born in Langres, 5 October
Jacques Germain Soufflot, French architect, born, 22 July
Bread riot in Boston, 19 May
Treaty of Utrecht ends war with France: Gilbralter goes to Britain, Rossillon to France, Borbon king rules Spain
Asiento Treaty grants American slave trade exclusively to England

Plays Produced:
Joseph Addison, Cato, with prologue by Alexander Pope

Alexander Pope, Ode on St. Cecilia’s Day

Henry Mill granted Royal Letters Patent for "artificial machine ... for the impressing or transcribing of letters," a proto-"typewriter"
Queen Anne dies, succeeded by George I, of Hanover, descendant of James I’s daughter, Elizabeth

William Congreve made a searcher of customs, 14 November

Jean Baptiste Pigalle, French sculptor, born, 26 January
Richard Wilson, English painter, born, 1 August
Claude Vernet, French painter, born, 14 August

Governor Robert Hunter of New York, Antroboros, first published American play
Nicholas Rowe, "Stage Edition" of the works of Shakespeare
Richard Steele, The Crisis, defends Hanoverian succession
William Cowper, Earl Cowper, An Impartial History of Parties

Louis XIV, King of France, dies, succeeded by his son Louis XV

Charles Nicolas Cochin II, French printmaker, born, 22 February

Bernard Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, second edition
First English edition of Andrea Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, in London by Giacomo Leoni
Kau Yi Keh Kung, Imperial edition of the I Ching, Book of Changes, in Peking

First theater opens in British American colonies, Williamsburg, Virginia
Gottfried Wilhelm von Liebnitz dies
First Bible published in Ireland, John 5:14 reads "sin on more," instead of "sin no more"