In text citations and "Works Cited" Page
The numbers refer to the sections in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition, (New York: MLA, 1999) in which the various citations are described in detail. Refer to these sections for further information.
5. Documentation: Citing Sources in the Text
5.4. Sample References
5.4.1. Citing an Entire Print or Nonprint Work
Quigley observes that Pinterís play "is concerned less with any single act of
betrayal and more with repeated instances of betrayal and the procedures of
dealing with a world in which it seems a persisting process" (236).
(Note: Parenthetical page reference comes after final quotation mark and before period.)
Fewer than three lines at a time:
In his poem "The Middle Creature" Van Doren observes that "Man is the one most caught / Between
not knowing and knowing," but adds that "He is most fierce, believing, / Most musical in trust" (139).
Three lines or more at a time:
Ginsburg addresses his homeland in his poem, "America," beginning with the plaintive,
Author quoted for more than three lines
Author's name in text
Magny develops this argument (67-69).
Author's name in reference
This argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).
Quotation found in indirect or "secondhand" source
The philosopher Alain states that "admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. . ." (qtd. in Magny 66).
Reference to material found in indirect source
Alain's words seem to dissociate admiration from pleasure (in Magny 66).
Authors' names, page number in reference
The most notorious foreign lobby in Washington is the "Sugar Mafia" (Howe and Trott 134).
Name of author of multi-volume work, volume and page numbers in reference
As a painter Andrea was "faultless" (Freedberg 1: 98).
Reference in text to whole volume
In his second volume, Freedberg gives an account of Andrea's whole painting career.
Citing one of two works by same author on list of works cited
Frye connects Burgess' A Clockwork Orange to romance tradition (Scripture 110).
Two locations in single text by one author.
Bharati deals with this problem (136-38, 166).
Two works cited by different authors, each with one work in "Works Cited"
Other scholars suggest that this is not the case (Magny 69, Bharati 142).
Personal interview, name given in text
Salinger was deeply hurt by his daughterís revelations and the press attention they provoked.
Corporate author; computer network as source
As of August 1995, the resident population
of the United States was estimated to be 262,569,000 (United States Bureau
of the Census).
Works Cited Page:
On a separate page, or pages, at the end of your paper, list alphabetically by author every work cited in your paper, using the basic forms illustrated below. Title the page "Works Cited" (not "Bibliography"), and list only those sources you actually cited in your paper.
Underline or italicize titles of books and periodicals.
Double-space all text (note: not as spaced here). Begin each entry at the left margin; indent the remaining lines five spaces or one "Tab" space.
4.6.1. A Book by a Single Author
Quigley, Austin, The Modern Stage and Other Worlds. New York: Methuen, 1985.
4.6.1. A Book Published under a Pseudonym
Cross, Amanda [Patricia Heilbrun]. Death in a Tenured Position. New York:
4.6.2. An Anthology or a Compilation
Kastan, David Scott, ed. A Companion to Shakespeare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell
Publishers Ltd., 1999.
4.6.3. Two or More Books by the Same Author
Tayler, Edward. Donne's Idea of a Woman: Structure And Meaning in The
Anniversaries. New York: Columbia UP, 1991.
---. Milton's Poetry: Its Development in Time. Pittsburgh : Duquesne
---. Nature and Art in Renaissance Literature. New York: Columbia UP, 1964.
4.6.4. A Book by Two or Three Authors or Editors
Howard, Jean, and Phyllis Rackin. Engendering a Nation: A Feminist Account of
Shakespeareís English Histories. London: Routledge, 1997.
Damrosch, David, Peter Manning, and Anne Schotter, eds. The Longman Anthology of
British Literature (The Twentieth Century). Addison-Wesley, 1999.
(Note: The first name is listed last name
first; the second and third names are listed first name first.)
4.6.4 A Book by More than Three Authors or Editors
Edens, Walter, et al., eds. Teaching Shakespeare. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1977.
(Note: Only list the first authorís or editorís name followed by et al)
4.6.5. Two or More Books by the Same Authors
4.6.6. A Book by a Corporate Author
Columbia University. Columbia University in Morningside Heights: A Framework for
Planning. New York : Columbia University, 1998.
4.6.7. A Work in an Anthology
Meisel, Martin. "Shaw and Revolution: The Politics of the Plays." Shaw: Seven Critical
Essays. Ed. Norman Rosenblood. Toronto: U. of Toronto Press, 1971. 106-134.
4.6.8. An Article in a Reference Book
Aronson, Arnold. "Stage Design." Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven: Yale
4.6.9. An Introduction, a Preface, a Forward, or an Afterward
Douglas, Ann. Introduction. Word Virus: The William S. Burroughs Reader. By
Burroughs. Ed. James Grauerholz and Ira Silverberg. New York: Grove Press,
Suckling, Sir John. "A Session of the Poets." Tayler 270-78.
Tayler, Edward, ed. Literary Criticism of 17th Century England. New York: Knopf, 1967.
Wilmot, John, Earl of Rochester. "A Session of the Poets." Tayler 326-32.
4.6.11. An Anonymous Book
At Dusk: The Situationist Movement in Historical Perspective. New York: Not Bored!,
4.6.12. An Edition
Shakespeare, William, Henry IV, Part One, Ed. David Scott Kastan. New York:
4.6.13. A Translation
Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Baltimore:
John Hopkins UP, 1976.
4.6.14. Second or Later Edition of a Book
Brown, John Russell. Shakespeare's Plays in Performance. 3rd ed. New York:
Applause Books, 1993.
4.6.15. A Multivolume Work
Damrosch, David, Peter Manning, and Anne Schotter, eds. The Longman Anthology of
British Literature. 3 vols. Addison-Wesley, 1999.
4.6.16. A Book in a Series
Tayler, Edward, Literary Criticism of 17th Century England. Borzoi Anthology of 17th
Century English Literature, Vol. IV. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967.
4.6.20. A Pamphlet (Treated as a book)
Pitcairn, Frank [Claud Cockburn], Where France Begins: What I Saw in Algiers. London:
Daily Worker League, 1943
4.6.21. A Government Publication
New York State. Commission on the Adirondacks in the Twenty-First Century. The
Adirondack Park in the Twenty-First Century. Albany: State of New York, 1990.
4.6.22. The Published Proceedings of a Conference
4.6.23. A Book in a Language Other Than English
Huyssen, Andreas. Drama des Sturm und Drang: Kommentar zu einer Epoche.
Munich: Winkler, 1980.
4.6.24. A Book Published before 1900
4.6.26. An Unpublished Dissertation
Crawford, Julie Anne, "'Lessons and Scholynges for Us All': Monsters as Signs in Early
Modern Popular Literature." Diss. Pennsylvania U, 1998.
4.6.26. A Published Dissertation
Nixon, Rob. London Calling: V.S. Naipaul, Postcolonial Mandarin, Diss. Columbia
U, 1989. New York: Oxford UP, 1992.
4.7 Citing Articles and Other Publications in Periodicals
4.7.1 An Article in a Scholarly Journal with Continuous Pagination
Adams, Rachel. "Enabling differences: New work in disability studies." Michigan
Quarterly Review, Ann Arbor; Spring 1998; Vol. 37, Iss. 2; pg. 342, 9 pgs
[find out if this is continuously paginated]
4.7.2. An Article in a Scholarly Journal That Pages Each Issue Seperately
Prior, Sandra Pierson. "Parodying Typology and the Mystery Plays in the Millerís Tale."
Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 16:1 (1986 Spring): 57-73.
Puchner, H. Martin. "Polyphonous Gestures: Wagnerian Modernism from Mallarme to
Stravinsky." Criticism 41:1 (1999 Winter): 25-35.
4.7.2. Journal Article, Annual
Peters, Julie Stone. "Joan of Arc Internationale." Proceedings of the American Society
for International Law (1998): 120-26.
4.7.3. An Article in a Scholarly Journal That Uses Only Issue Numbers
4.7.4. An Article in a Scholarly Journal with More Than One Series
4.7.5. A Newspaper Article
Said, Edward W. "Bonding Across Cultural Boundaries." New York Times. 27 February
2000, Late Edition Ė Final. Section 2: 43.
4.7.6. A Magazine Article
Wills, Garry. "Storm over Jefferson." The New York Review of Books. 23 March
4.7.7. A Book Review
Shapiro, James, "Soul of the Age." Rev. of Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human,
by Harold Bloom, New York Times. 1 November 1998. Section 7: 8.
4.7.8. An Abstract in an Abstracts Journal
4.7.9. An Anonymous Article
4.7.10. An Editorial
4.7.11. A Letter to the Editor
4.7.12. A Serialized Article
4.7.13. A Special Issue
4.7.14. An Article in a Microform Collection of Articles
4.7.15. An Article Reprinted in a Loose-Leaf
Collection of Articles
4.8 Citing Miscellaneous Print and Nonprint Sources
4.8.1. A Television or Radio Program
4.8.2. A Sound Recording
4.8.3. A Film or Video Recording
Gordon, Bette, dir. Luminous Motion. Fiona Films, 1998.
4.8.4. A Performance
4.8.5. A Musical Composition
4.8.6. A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph
4.8.7. An Interview
Published or recorded Interview
Interview Broadcast on Television or Radio
Edward Said on Charlie Rose, 9 March 2001?
Interview Conducted by the researcher
Salinger, J. D. Personal interview. 1 April 2001.
4.8.8. A Map or Chart
4.8.9. A Cartoon
4.8.10 An Advertisement
4.8.11 A Lecture, a Speech, an Address, or a Reading
4.8.12 A Manuscript or Typescript
4.8.13 A Letter or Memo
4.8.14 A Legal Source
4.9 Citing Electronic Publications
Note: The MLA guidelines for citing sources in electronic form are new and will probably evolve over time. Do the best you can to identify the items of information required for each type of electronic publication (e.g., author, title of document or text, title of database, publication medium, name of vendor, etc.; these items are listed section by section on pp. 151-67 in the Handbook) and to follow the example presented for each type. If you cannot find all the information required, the Handbook advises that you cite what is available.
4.9.2. An Online Scholarly Project, Information Database, or Professional or
on Demand Side Economics." http://www.columbia.edu/dlc/wp/econ/vickrey.html.
(4 November 2000).
4.9.3. An Online Book
4.9.4. An Article in an Online Periodical
Sexton, Joe. "Career in Bodegas Ends in Death of Man and Son." New
Online. Nexis. 5 Aug. 1995.
Saban, Joseph Matthew. "Practical uses of Standardized Test Data." DAI
Ondisc. CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest. Aug. 1995.
4.9.7. A Work from an Online Service
4.9.8. A Work in an Indeterminate Medium
4.9.9. Other Electronic Sources